The letter had a rough ride in being accepted into the cannon of the NT, and many modern scholars deny that it was written by Peter because of differences of style between the two letters. Their suggestion is that it was written by an anonymous disciple of Peter in the second century.
The authorship of this letter is greatly disputed, although the biblical evidence certainly points to the apostle Peter. It claims to be by Simeon Peter, a servant and apostle of Jesus Christ (1:1). The author claims to be an eyewitness of Christ's majesty, when he received honour and glory from God the Father, and heard the voice from heaven, "This is my beloved son, with whom I am well pleased" (1:16-18). This is certainly a reference to the transfiguration (Mt 17:6). Only three disciples: Peter, James and John, were present on the mountain to be eye-witnesses. The author was warned by Jesus about his approaching death (1:14), a reference to Jn 21:18-19. He calls this letter his second letter to the same readers, so we assume that 1 Peter was the first letter (3:1). The author is familiar with Paul's letters (3:15-16).
It may be significant to note that the word "entice" (2:14,18) is the fisherman's word for catching fish with a bait, perhaps a link with Peter's former career.
There is not much evidence from the early church. 2 Peter was probably not well known, it was not often quoted and not generally accepted. Origen wrote about two letters by Peter and quoted 2 Pet 1:4 as scripture.
Eusebius listed 2 Peter as a disputed book of the canon, but acknowledged that many found it useful to be read with other scriptures, saying this
“One epistle of Peter, that called the first, is acknowledged as genuine. And this the ancient elders used freely in their own writings as an undisputed work. But we have learned that his extant second Epistle does not belong to the canon; yet, as it has appeared profitable to many, it has been used with the other Scriptures.” (Ecclesiastical History 3:3)
Jerome included 2 Peter in the Latin Vulgate, but was concerned over the differences in style in the two letters, saying this
“He (Peter) wrote two epistles which are called Catholic, the second of which, on account of its difference from the first in style, is considered by many not to be by him.” (Lives of Illustrious Men 1).
2 Peter was accepted as canonical in the Council of Laodicea (AD 363) and the Council of Carthage (AD 397). Augustine and Luther accepted it as genuine, but Erasmus rejected it, and Calvin had doubts about it.
Similarities between the two letters
Some words and phrases found in both, but rarely in other writings, including: precious (1 Pet 1:7,19, 2 Pet 1:1), virtue (1 Pet 2:9, 2 Pet 1:3), supply (1 Pet 4:11, 2 Pet 1:5), love of the brethren (1 Pet 1:22, 2 Pet 1:7), to see, behold, or eyewitness (1 Pet 2:12,3:2, 2 Pet 1:16) and without blemish or spot (1 Pet 1:19, 2 Pet 3:14).
They also both contain similar teaching on certain subjects, such as: the end of the age (1 Pet 1:5, 4:7, 2 Pet 3:3,10), prophecy (1 Pet 1:10-12, 2 Pet 1:10. 3:2), the flood (1 Pet 3:20, 2 Pet 2:5, 3:6), Christian liberty (1 Pet 2:16, 2 Pet 2:19), the divine initiative, calling and consequent character of the Christian (1 Pet 2:9, 2 Pet 1:3), the parousia bringing judgement and joy (1 Pet 4:5,13,17, 2 Pet 3:7,13), and the parousia being an incentive to holy living (1 Pet 4:7, 2 Pet 3:11,14).
People have also noted some similarities between 2 Peter and the words Peter uses in his speeches in Acts. These are: obtained (Acts 1:17, 2 Pet 1:1), godliness (Acts 3:12, 2 Pet 1:7), unlawful (Acts 2:23, 2 Pet 2:8), the day of the Lord (Acts 2:20, 2 Pet 3:10), and wages or reward for iniquity (Acts 1:18, 2 Pet 2:13,15).
The style of 2 Peter is similar to Peter's speech at the Council of Jerusalem (Acts 15), personal, direct and emphatic, which would suggest that II Peter was written by Peter himself and that he used a secretary, such as Silvanus, to write I Peter.
No locality is mentioned in the letter. There is only a general address at the beginning, to all believers. It was Peter's second letter to the same people (3:1), which is a probable reference to 1 Peter, unless Peter wrote other letters which are not included in the N.T.. Paul had also written letters to these churches (3:15). It is likely that both of Peter's letters were written to the same wide area of Asia Minor (1 Pet 1:1).
Occasion of letter
Peter had heard news of false teachers who were coming with gnostic ideas, stressing knowledge as the means of salvation, which will be a threat to the young churches. He exhorts the believers to persevere in the truth which leads to godliness, the true knowledge, even in the midst of error and infidelity. He warns the false teachers of their danger in the light of the second coming, which will be a time of judgement for them, not a time of rejoicing. He exhorts the believers to live in the light of the Lord's coming, with lives characterised by holiness and godliness.
The words “knowledge”, “to know” and “to understand” appear fifteen times in II Peter, which would suggest relevance to people with gnostic ideas.
Date of writing
Peter's first letter was written during Nero's persecution, the time when Peter was martyred, so this letter must have been written shortly before his death, perhaps around AD 67.
Similarity with Jude
There are only ten verses in Jude which do not have parallels in 2 Peter (1,3,5,14,19,20,22-25). Most of the parallels are in chapter two. The material common to both is almost exclusively concerned with the false teachers.
This is a list of the parallel passages:
May peace ... be multiplied to you (Jude 2, 2 Pet 1:2)
False teachers deny the Master (Jude 4, 2 Pet 2:1)
Angels who sinned, pits of nether gloom until judgement (Jude 6, 2 Pet 2:4)
Sodom & Gomorrah ... destroyed as example to ungodly (Jude 7, 2 Pet 2:6)
Men defile flesh, reject authority (Jude 8, 2 Pet 2:10)
Angels not pronouncing reviling judgement (Jude 9, 2 Pet 2;11)
Men, revile things they do not understand - of instinct like irrational animals, will be destroyed (Jude 10, 2 Pet 2:12)
Gone the way of Balaam, forsaking right way for sake of greed (Jude 11, 2 Pet 2:15)
Blots and blemishes (Jude 12, 2 Pet 2:13)
Waterless mists and clouds, blown by storm (Jude 12, 2 Pet 2:17)
Nether gloom of darkness reserved for them (Jude 13, 2 Pet 2:17)
Judgement on the ungodly (Jude 15, 2 Pet 2:6-9)
Loud boasts of folly (Jude 16, 2 Pet 2:18)
You must remember the predictions ... (Jude 17. 2 Pet 3:2)
Scoffers will come in the last days, following their own passions (Jude 18, 2 Pet 3:3)
Waiting for the day of the Lord and eternal life (Jude 21, 2 Pet 3:12)
2 Peter contains more positive Christian teaching, while Jude is mostly denouncing the false
teachers. The false teachers are not identical in the two books, but similar descriptions are used in both. These are the similarities:
Lives and teaching denied the Lordship of Jesus (Jude 4, 2 Pet 2:1)
Defiled love feasts, were immoral, infected others, emphasised freedom (Jude 4,12, 2 Pet 2:10-18)
Plausible, crafty, eloquent, out for gain, flatterers (Jude 16, 2 Pet 2:3,12-18)
Arrogant and cynical (Jude 8, 2 Pet 2:1,10-11)
Posed as prophets to support their claims (Jude 8, 2 Pet 2:1)
Self-willed, divisive and superior (Jude 18, 2 Pet 2:2,10,18)
Scoffers (Jude 18, 2 Pet 3:3)
There are also a couple of differences:
Twisted scriptures and Paul's letters to their own end (2 Pet 3:15-16)
Perverted the grace of God into licentiousness (Jude 4)
Which letter came first?
There is a continuing debate over whether Jude quoted from Peter, or Peter quoted from Jude.
Most of the scholars who believe that 2 Peter was by Peter suggest that Jude quoted from Peter. They say that a prominent apostle like Peter would not have copied from a more obscure man like Jude, even though Jude was a brother of Jesus. In his letter it appears that Peter is predicting that false teachers will come (2 Pet 2:1,2,3,12,13), but Jude addresses false teachers already here (Jude 4). But Peter also used the present tense to describe their character and conduct (2:10-22), but their presence is still in the future. The quotation of the prediction in Jude 18, is from 2 Pet 3:3, almost word for word. Their conclusion is that Peter wrote of the coming false teachers and Jude wrote about them once they had arrived, expanding on Peter's material. If Jude, the brother of Jesus, based his letter on 2 Peter, this would confirm that II Peter is apostolic and canonical.
However other scholars believe that Peter quoted from Jude, so Jude came first. Most of these do not believe that 2 Peter was apostolic. They argue from the following points: Peter wrote the longer letter, and would be more likely to draw from a shorter letter, than vice versa. If 2 Peter had already been written, there would not be much point in Jude writing. Jude seems more spontaneous, he has no long introduction, he knows the false teachers because they are already here. The freshness, vitality and harshness of Jude compares with the more restrained style of 2 Peter. However, this point could be argued both ways. Also Peter omits the apocryphal references which Jude used.
Another suggestion is that there was an independent third source used by both Peter and Jude. People had speculated about the existence of a "Q" letter, similar to the "Q" document assumed to be used by Mark and Luke in the synoptic gospels, but there is not much support for this view.