These describe the legal transfer of land, or a royal gift of land. They also declare the boundaries of the land, and call on the gods to protect the land. They often name the person who surveyed the land, and list the witnesses to the legal transfer of land. These stones have curses inscribed on them to fall upon anyone who moves or damages the stones, or ignores the legal demands written on them.
Moving a neighbour’s boundary stone is effectively stealing their land, so this was included as one of the curses of Deuteronomy
Cursed be anyone who moves a neighbour's boundary marker (Deut 27:17).
When Jacob and Laban finally made a covenant after Jacob escaped from serving Laban, they set up a heap and a pillar, which acted as a boundary stone, marking the limit of each other’s territory (Gen 31:52).