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Neo-Babylonian Empire at time of Nebuchadnezzar - Room 55

Objects in this room come from the Babylonian Empire during the time of Nebuchadnezzar of Babylon (604-562 BC) , around the time of the fall of Jerusalem in 586 BC and the exile of Judah.

The first king of the neo-Babylonian empire was Nabopolassar (625-605 BC), father of Nebuchadnezzar. Nebuchadnezzar was followed by two weaker kings. After them Nabonidus (555 - 539 BC) seized the throne. His son was the Belshazzar of Belshazzar’s feast (Dan 5).

Chronicle of Nabonidus (WA 35382) - (9 of 13)

This tablet explains that Nabonidus was absent in Arabia for at least five years of his reign, and that his son Belshazzar, the crown prince, ruled in his place. Therefore when Daniel successfully interpreted the writing on the wall during Belshazzar's feast, he was offered third place in the kingdom, not second (Dan 5:7). Belshazzar was only the crown prince, so was second in the kingdom after Nabonidus, so could offer Daniel third place. “Now if you are able to read the writing and tell me its interpretation, you shall be clothed in purple, have a chain of gold around your neck, and rank third in the kingdom”. (Dan 5:16)

Seventh year (549/548): The king (Nabonidus) stayed in Tema; the crown prince (Belshazzar), his officials and his army were in Akkad. The king did not come to Babylon for the (new year) ceremonies ...
Ninth year (547/546): The king stayed in Tema ...
Tenth year (546/545): The king stayed in Tema ...
Eleventh year (545/544): The king stayed in Tema ...

It also describes Cyrus the Persian entering the city of Babylon without a battle.
In the month of Tasritu ... the sixteenth day (13th October), Gobryas (Ugbaru), the governor of Gutium, and the army of Cyrus entered Babylon without a battle. Afterwards Nabonidus was arrested in Babylon when he returned there.

In the month of Arahsamma, the third day (29th October), Cyrus entered Babylon, green twigs were spread in front of him - the state of peace was imposed upon the city. Cyrus sent greetings to all Babylon. Gobryas, his governor, installed sub-governors in Babylon.”

It has been suggested that Gobryas, or Ugbaru should be identified as Darius the Mede who took the kingdom of Babylon from Belshazzar (Dan 5:31), who was the king of Persia who had Daniel thrown into the lion’s den (Dan 6).