Tiglath-pileser I was the name of Assyria's first great empire-builder. Pul was an army commander who seized the throne and changed his name to Tiglath-pileser which spelled out his military intentions, another campaign to further the already powerful empire, yet weakened by recent decadence in Assyria.
The invasion of Gilead and Galilee by Tiglath-pileser is described in the Bible, "King Pul of Assyria came against the land; Menahem gave Pul a thousand talents of silver, so that he might help him confirm his hold on the royal power." (2 Kg 15:19). There is a stela portraying Tiglath-pileser with an inscription describing the tribute paid by king Menahem of Israel in the Israel Museum in Jerusalem.
A few years later, "In the days of King Pekah of Israel, King Tiglath-pileser of Assyria came and captured Ijon, ... Hazor, Gilead, and Galilee, all the land of Napthali; and he carried the people captive to Assyria." (2 Kg 15:29)
Later, during the Syro-Ephraimite war, King Ahaz of Judah appealed for help from Tiglath-pileser to defend Judah from attack by a coalition of Israel and Syria. "Ahaz sent messengers to King Tiglath-pileser of Assyria, saying, 'I am your servant and your son. Come up and rescue me from the hand of the king of Aram and from the hand of the king of Israel who are attacking me ...'" (2 Kg 16:7-9)
Amos the Shepherd heard the 'Lion’s roar' (Amos 1:2). Amos chapters 1 and 2 is a list of judgements on the nations and almost all were fulfilled by Tiglath-pileser III. A tablet from the Annals of Tiglath-pileser listing these conquests is in Room 89, downstairs.