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The Apocrypha

Julian Spriggs M.A.

Related articles

Why 66 books - the Canon of Scripture The Hebrew scriptures
The Apocrypha The Pseudepigrapha
History of the English Bible

The Apocrypha

The term ‘Apocrypha’ means ‘hidden’ or ‘concealed’. It was first given this name by Jerome to mean ‘non-canonical’. It consists of twelve books which were included in some copies of the Greek Septuagint, but which were not included in the Hebrew Scriptures. Most of the material was written in the last two centuries BC and the first century AD, a few centuries after Jews considered the canon of Scripture to be closed.

Protestant churches exclude the Apocrypha from the canon of Scripture because the documents are not considered to be divinely inspired. They have many historical and geographical inaccuracies. For example the Book of Judith says that Nebuchadnezzar was king of Assyria, ruling from Nineveh (1:1). The story of Bel and the Dragon has the prophet Habakkuk appearing to Daniel in the lion’s den, even though Habakkuk lived many years before Daniel (Bel 33). They also teach doctrines and practices which disagree with teaching in the New Testament. For example, the Book of Tobit teaches that giving to the poor atones for sin (Tobit 12:9). The Roman Catholic doctrine of Purgatory is based on 2 Maccabees, where Judas and his men prayed for the dead men killed in battle who were wearing idolatrous images under their clothes (12:39-45).

However, the apocryphal books can be interesting to read, as they give a clearer picture of the cultural and historical situation that Jesus was born into. They give valuable information on Jewish history, thought, worship and religious practice in the last centuries BC. As an academic resource they can be useful, but would not be recommended as devotional books, or for public reading or teaching in churches.

Luther did not regard them as scripture, but as "useful and good for reading". The Anglican 39 articles admit them only for private edification, not to be read publicly in church.

List of Books in the Apocrypha

1 Esdras
2 Esdras
The Additions to Esther
The Wisdom of Solomon
Baruch and the Letter of Jeremiah
The Additions to Daniel
The Prayer of Manasseh
1 Maccabees
2 Maccabees

Links to an online version of each book in the Apocrypha is provided at the end of the description of each book.

Several manuscripts of the Septuagint also include 3 Maccabees, 4 Maccabees, and Psalm 151. These are included in the Bible of the Orthodox Church.

Summary of the twelve books

There are four books of Esdras. These are the Books of Ezra and Nehemiah in the OT, plus two apocryphal books. The names of the books are confusing, as different titles are given to them in different versions of the Bible.

1 Esdras (150 BC) (3 Esdras in Vulgate)

1 Esdras gives an account of the restoration of the Jews to the land after the Babylonian exile. It is a historical account drawn from 2 Chronicles 35-36, Ezra and Nehemiah 8-9, with much legendary material added. It includes the story of the three guardsmen (1 Esdras 3:1 - 5:6) debating before emperor Darius what was the strongest thing in the world: wine, woman or truth. Zerubbabel gave the correct answer - Truth, and as a reward was allowed to rebuild the Temple at Jerusalem.

Text of 1 Esdras

2 Esdras (AD 100) (4 Esdras in Vulgate)

2 Esdras is a Jewish apocalypse, containing seven visions given to Shealtiel, who is normally identified as Ezra. He laments over the situation of exiled Israel and looks for a Messianic figure to restore the nation to its former glory. It answers questions of the problem of evil, suffering, persecution, the end of the world, judgement and the new world. It was written in Hebrew and translated into Greek in the late second century AD. Luther was so confused after reading this book, he was said to have thrown it into the River Elbe.

Text of 2 Esdras

Tobit (early second century BC)

The Book of Tobit is a pious short novel, which is strongly Pharisaic. It aims to instruct Jews in proper attitudes of piety before God. It gives us a picture of Jewish piety and morality just before NT times, emphasising the law, clean food, ceremonial washing, charity, fasting and prayer. It teaches that giving to the poor atones for sin (Tobit 12:9).

Text of Tobit

Judith (middle second century BC)

The Book of Judith is another Pharisaic novel about Judith, who was a beautiful Jewish widow. When her city was besieged by the Assyrians, she took clean Jewish food out to the tent of the attacking general. He was enamoured by her beauty and allowed her into his tent. He drank too much and fell into a drunken stupor. Judith took his sword and out off his head. She left, taking his head with her. She hung it on the wall of the city, and the leaderless Assyrian army was defeated. The book seems to have no basis of historical fact, and contains chronological errors.

Text of Judith

Additions to Esther (100 BC)

The OT Book of Esther has no explicit mention of God, so six passages in Greek were added later to compensate for this and to give it a more religious style. Esther and Mordecai fasted, but no mention is made of their prayers in the Book of Esther. Long prayers are added, as well as some letters supposedly from Artaxerxes, and a dream that Mordecai had.

ADream of Mordecai11:2 - 12:6Prologue
BEdict of Artxerxes against Jews13:1-7After 3:13
CPrayers of Mordecai and Esther13:8 - 14:19After 4:17
DEsther before King Xerxes15:1-16After 4:17
EThe Edict of Defence16:1-24After 8:12
FMeaning of Mordecai's Dream10:4 - 11:1After 10:3

The dream of Mordecai and its meaning (sections A and F) are an excellent example of apocalyptic literature, helpful in the interpretation of the Book of Revelation.

Text of the Additions to Esther

The Wisdom of Solomon (100 BC)

The Wisdom of Solomon is similar to the OT books of Proverbs and Ecclesiastes. It uses traditional Jewish material, with ideas borrowed from Greek philosophy. The reader is exhorted to seek personified Wisdom. It was written to keep the Jews from falling into scepticism, materialism and idolatry. Some early church leaders counted this book as part of the NT. It is included in the Muratorian Canon.

Text of the Wisdom of Solomon

Ecclesiasticus, or the Wisdom of Jesus son of Sirach (180 BC)

This is one of the longer books. It is also similar to Proverbs, containing much traditional Jewish religious wisdom and practical advice. It was written in Hebrew by a man called Joshua (or Jesus) and translated into Greek by his grandson. John Wesley quoted from this book in his sermons. It is still used in the Anglican Church.

Text of Ecclesiasticus or Sirach

Baruch (about AD 100)

This claims to have been written by Jeremiah's secretary Baruch in 582 BC. It was probably written in an attempt to explain the Fall of Jerusalem in AD 70. It consists of four distinct discourses, urging the Jews not to revolt again and to submit to the emperor. The sixth chapter contains the so-called ‘Letter of Jeremiah’, with strong warnings about idolatry, which was probably addressed to the Jews in captivity. It is similar to the letter sent by Jeremiah in Jer 29.

Text of Baruch

Additions to Daniel (100 BC)

These stories were added to the book of Daniel when it was translated into Greek.

a. The Prayer of Azariah and the Song of the Three Young Men

This follows Daniel 3:23 in the LXX and the Vulgate. The prayer of Azariah was uttered in the furnace recognises the divine justice of the Babylonian exile. This is followed by a song praising God as the three walk about in the fiery furnace where they were thrown by Nebuchadnezzar. It borrows heavily from Psalm 148.

Text of the Prayer of Azariah

b. Susanna - added as chapter 13 of Daniel.

Susanna was a beautiful wife of a leading Jew in Babylon. The Jewish elders and judges frequently came to his house. Two of them tried to seduce Susanna. She cried out and the two elders said she was found in the arms of a young man. She was put on trial, and there were two witnesses who agreed, so she was sentenced to death for adultery. Daniel interrupted and cross-examined the witnesses, asking each one under which tree they had found Susanna and the young man. They gave different answers, so were put to death and Susanna was saved.

Text of Susanna

c. Bel and the Dragon - added as chapter 14 of Daniel, consists of two stories to ridicule idolatry.

1. King Cyrus asked Daniel why he didn't worship Bel, who showed his greatness by consuming sheep, flour and oil daily. Daniel scattered ashes on the floor of the temple. The next morning the King took Daniel to the temple to show him that Bel had eaten the food during the night. Daniel showed the King the footprints of the priests in the ashes who had taken the food. The priests were killed and the temple destroyed.

2. A mighty dragon worshipped in Babylon is destroyed by Daniel, who is thrown into the lion's den, where he is preserved for six days. On the sixth day, the prophet Habakkuk is miraculously transported from Judea to give Daniel food, and on the seventh day he is released.

Text of Bel and the Dragon

The Prayer of Manasseh (second cent BC)

This is the supposed prayer of repentance of the wicked king Manasseh during his imprisonment in Babylonia, mentioned in 2 Chr 33:12-20. The prayer is not in the Bible, so was added later.

Text of the Prayer of Manasseh

1 Maccabees (100 BC)

This is the most valuable book in the Apocrypha, describing the exploits of the three Maccabean brothers - Judas, Jonathan and Simon. It covers the events from 175 to 134 BC, from the struggle against Antiochus Epiphanes to the rise of John Hyrcanus. It teaches that the Maccabean (or Hasmonean) family was chosen by God to save Israel and victory is given to those who are faithful to God. This book, together with Josephus, are the best historical sources of this period.

Text of 1 Maccabees

2 Maccabees (first cent BC)

This is a parallel account to the earlier part of 1 Maccabees, covering the victories of Judas Maccabeus, in a more legendary manner. It is a condensation of a five-volume history by Jason of Cyrene, from the time of High Priest Onias III (180 BC) to the death of Nicanor (161 BC). There is a strong emphasis on the loyalty to the law and God's rewards for martyrs. It contains several contradictions and chronological errors. The Roman Catholic doctrine of Purgatory is based on 2 Macc 12:39-45, where Judas and his men prayed for the dead men killed in battle, who were wearing idolatrous images of gods under their clothes.

Text of 2 Maccabees

Testimony of exclusion from Canon.

Philo (20 BC - AD 40) quoted from the OT, but never from the Apocrypha. Josephus (AD 30-100) numbers the OT books as 22, explicitly excluding the Apocrypha. Jesus and NT writers quote from the OT hundreds of times, but never quote from the Apocrypha. The Jewish scholars of Jamnia (AD 90) did not recognise it. No canon or council of the Christian church for the first four centuries recognised it as inspired.

Origen, Cyril of Jerusalem and Athanasius spoke against it. Jerome (340-420), the great scholar and translator of the Vulgate, rejected it, in dispute with Augustine who added it to the Vulgate.

The books of the apocrypha were rejected by many Roman Catholic scholars during the reformation period, and by Luther and the other reformers. In Luther's German Bible, they were separated and placed at the end of the OT, and given the name Apocrypha.

The books were finally included by the Roman Catholic church at the counter-reformation Council of Trent (1546) and are now counted as fully inspired scripture by the Catholics. They are known by Catholics as the Deuterocanonical books, as they were accepted as scripture later than other books (the protocanonical books).

Related articles

Why 66 books - the Canon of Scripture The Hebrew scriptures
The Apocrypha The Pseudepigrapha
History of the English Bible

The Bible

Pages which look at issues relevant to the whole Bible, such as the Canon of Scripture, as well as doctrinal and theological issues. There are also pages about the Apocrypha, Pseudepigrapha and 'lost books' of the Old Testament.

Also included are lists of the quotations of the OT in the NT, and passages of the OT quoted in the NT.

Why These 66 Books?
Books in the Hebrew Scriptures
Quotations in NT From OT
OT Passages Quoted in NT
History of the English Bible
Twelve Books of the Apocrypha
The Pseudepigrapha - False Writings
Lost Books Referenced in OT

Old Testament Overview

This is a series of six pages which give a historical overview through the Old Testament and the inter-testamental period, showing where each OT book fits into the history of Israel.

OT 1: Creation and Patriarchs
OT 2: Exodus and Wilderness
OT 3: Conquest and Monarchy
OT 4: Divided kingdom and Exile
OT 5: Return from Exile
OT 6: 400 Silent Years

New Testament Overview

This is a series of five pages which give a historical overview through the New Testament, focusing on the Ministry of Jesus, Paul's missionary journeys, and the later first century. Again, it shows where each book of the NT fits into the history of the first century.

NT 1: Life and Ministry of Jesus
NT 2: Birth of the Church
NT 3: Paul's Missionary Journeys
NT 4: Paul's Imprisonment
NT 5: John and Later NT

Introductions to Old Testament Books

This is an almost complete collection of introductions to each of the books in the Old Testament. Each contains information about the authorship, date, historical setting and main themes of the book.

Genesis Exodus Leviticus
Numbers Deuteronomy

Joshua Judges Ruth
1 & 2 Samuel 1 & 2 Kings Chronicles
Ezra & Nehemiah Esther

Job Psalms Proverbs

Isaiah Jeremiah Lamentations
Ezekiel Daniel

Hosea Joel Amos
Obadiah Jonah Micah
Nahum Habakkuk Zephaniah
Haggai Zechariah Malachi

Introductions to New Testament Books

This is a collection of introductions to each of the 27 books in the New Testament. Each contains information about the authorship, date, historical setting and main themes of the book.

Matthew's Gospel Mark's Gospel Luke's Gospel
John's Gospel

Book of Acts

Romans 1 Corinthians 2 Corinthians
Galatians Ephesians Philippians
Colossians 1 & 2 Thessalonians 1 Timothy
2 Timothy Titus Philemon

Hebrews James 1 Peter
2 Peter 1 John 2 & 3 John


Old Testament History

Information about the different nations surrounding Israel, and other articles concerning Old Testament history and the inter-testamental period.

Canaanite Religion
Israel's Enemies During the Conquest
Syria / Aram
The Assyrian Empire
Babylon and its History
The Persian Empire
The Greek Empire
The 400 Silent Years
The Ptolemies and Seleucids
Antiochus IV - Epiphanes

Old Testament Studies

A series of articles covering more general topics for OT studies. These include a list of the people named in the OT and confirmed by archaeology. There are also pages to convert the different units of measure in the OT, such as the talent, cubit and ephah into modern units.

More theological topics include warfare in the ancient world, the Holy Spirit in the OT, and types of Jesus in the OT.

OT People Confirmed by Archaeology
The Jewish Calendar
The Importance of Paradox
Talent Converter (weights)
Cubit Converter (lengths)
OT People Search
Ephah Converter (volumes)
Holy War in the Ancient World
The Holy Spirit in the OT
Types of Jesus in the OT

Studies in the Pentateuch (Gen - Deut)

A series of articles covering studies in the five books of Moses. Studies in the Book of Genesis look at the historical nature of the early chapters of Genesis, the Tower of Babel and the Table of the Nations.

There are also pages about covenants, the sacrifices and offerings, the Jewish festivals and the tabernacle, as well as the issue of tithing.

Are chapters 1-11 of Genesis historical?
Chronology of the Flood
Genealogies of the Patriarchs
Table of the Nations (Gen 10)
Tower of Babel (Gen 11:1-9)

Authorship of the Pentateuch
Chronology of the Wilderness Years
Names of God in the OT
Covenants in the OT
The Ten Commandments
The Tabernacle and its Theology
Sacrifices and Offerings
The Jewish Festivals
Balaam and Balak
Highlights from Deuteronomy
Overview of Deuteronomy

Studies in the Old Testament History Books (Josh - Esther)

Articles containing studies and helpful information for the history books. These include a list of the dates of the kings of Israel and Judah, a summary of the kings of the Northern Kingdom of Israel, and studies of Solomon, Jeroboam and Josiah.

There are also pages describing some of the historical events of the period, including the Syro-Ephraimite War, and the Assyrian invasion of Judah in 701 BC.

Dates of the Kings of Judah and Israel
King Solomon
The Kings of Israel
King Jeroboam I of Israel
The Syro-Ephraimite War (735 BC)
Sennacherib's Invasion of Judah (701 BC)
King Josiah of Judah
Differences Between Kings and Chronicles
Chronology of the post-exilic period

Studies in the Old Testament Prophets (Is - Mal)

Articles containing studies and helpful information for the OT prophets. These include a page looking at the way the prophets look ahead into their future, a page looking at the question of whether Satan is a fallen angel, and a page studying the seventy weeks of Daniel.

There are also a series of pages giving a commentary through the text of two of the books:
Isaiah (13 pages) and Daniel (10 pages).

Prophets and the Future
The Call of Jeremiah (Jer 1)
The Fall of Satan? (Is 14, Ezek 28)
Daniel Commentary (10 pages)
Isaiah Commentary (13 pages)
Formation of the Book of Jeremiah

Daniel's Seventy Weeks (Dan 9:24-27)

New Testament Studies

A series of articles covering more general topics for NT studies. These include a list of the people in the NT confirmed by archaeology.

More theological topics include the Kingdom of God and the Coming of Christ.

NT People Confirmed by Archaeology
The Kingdom of God / Heaven
Parousia (Coming of Christ)
The Importance of Paradox

Studies in the Four Gospels (Matt - John)

A series of articles covering various studies in the four gospels. These include a list of the unique passages in each of the Synoptic Gospels and helpful information about the parables and how to interpret them.

Some articles look at the life and ministry of Jesus, including his genealogy, birth narratives, transfiguration, the triumphal entry into Jerusalem, and the seating arrangements at the Last Supper.

More theological topics include the teaching about the Holy Spirit as the Paraclete and whether John the Baptist fulfilled the predictions of the coming of Elijah.

Unique Passages in the Synoptic Gospels
The SynopticProblem
Genealogy of Jesus (Matt 1)
Birth Narratives of Jesus
Understanding the Parables
Peter's Confession and the Transfiguration
Was John the Baptist Elijah?
The Triumphal Entry
The Olivet Discourse (Mark 13)
Important themes in John's Gospel
John's Gospel Prologue (John 1)
Jesus Fulfilling Jewish Festivals
Reclining at Table at the Last Supper
The Holy Spirit as the Paraclete

Studies in the Book of Acts and the New Testament Letters

A series of articles covering various studies in the Book of Acts and the Letters, including Paul's letters. These include a page studying the messages given by the apostles in the Book of Acts, and the information about the financial collection that Paul made during his third missionary journey. More theological topics include Paul's teaching on Jesus as the last Adam, and descriptions of the church such as the body of Christ and the temple, as well as a look at redemption and the issue of fallen angels.

There are a series of pages giving a commentary through the text of five of the books:
Romans (7 pages), 1 Corinthians (7 pages), Galatians (3 pages), Philemon (1 page) and Hebrews (7 pages)

Apostolic Messages in the Book of Acts
Paul and His Apostleship
Collection for the Saints
The Church Described as a Temple
Church as the Body of Christ
Jesus as the Last Adam
Food Offered to Idols
Paul's Teaching on Headcoverings
Who are the Fallen Angels
The Meaning of Redemption
What is the Church?
Paul and the Greek Games

Romans Commentary (7 pages)

1 Corinthians Commentary (7 pages)

Galatians Commentary (3 pages)

Philemon Commentary (1 page)

Hebrews Commentary (7 pages)

Studies in the Book of Revelation

Articles containing studies and helpful information for the study of the Book of Revelation and topics concerning Eschatology (the study of end-times).

These include a description of the structure of the book, a comparison and contrast between the good and evil characters in the book and a list of the many allusions to the OT. For the seven churches, there is a page which gives links to their location on Google maps.

There is a page studying the important theme of Jesus as the Lamb, which forms the central theological truth of the book. There are pages looking at the major views of the Millennium, as well as the rapture and tribulation, as well as a list of dates of the second coming that have been mistakenly predicted through history.

There is also a series of ten pages giving a detailed commentry through the text of the Book of Revelation.

Introduction to the Book of Revelation
Characters Introduced in the Book
Structure of Revelation
List of Allusions to OT
The Description of Jesus as the Lamb
Virtual Seven Churches of Revelation
The Nero Redivius Myth
The Millennium (1000 years)
The Rapture and the Tribulation
Different Approaches to Revelation
Predicted Dates of the Second Coming

Revelation Commentary (10 pages)

How to do Inductive Bible Study

These are a series of pages giving practical help showing how to study the Bible inductively, by asking a series of simple questions. There are lists of observation and interpretation questions, as well as information about the structure and historical background of biblical books, as well as a list of the different types of figures of speech used in the Bible. There is also a page giving helpful tips on how to apply the Scriptures personally.

How to Study the Bible Inductively
I. The Inductive Study Method
II. Observation Questions
III. Interpretation Questions
IV. Structure of Books
V. Determining the Historical background
VI. Identifying Figures of Speech
VII. Personal Application
VIII. Text Layout

Types of Literature in the Bible

These are a series of pages giving practical help showing how to study each of the different types of book in the Bible by appreciating the type of literature being used. These include historical narrative, law, wisdom, prophets, Gospels, Acts, letters and Revelation.

It is most important that when reading the Bible we are taking note of the type of literature we are reading. Each type needs to be considered and interpreted differently as they have different purposes.

How to Understand OT Narratives
How to Understand OT Law
Hebrew Poetry
OT Wisdom Literature
Understanding the OT Prophets
The Four Gospels
The Parables of Jesus
The Book of Acts
How to Understand the NT Letters
Studying End Times (Eschatology)
The Book of Revelation

Geography and Archaeology

These are a series of pages giving geographical and archaeological information relevant to the study of the Bible. There is a page where you can search for a particular geographical location and locate it on Google maps, as well as viewing photographs on other sites.

There are also pages with photographs from Ephesus and Corinth.

Search for Geographical Locations
Major Archaeological Sites in Israel
Archaeological Sites in Assyria, Babylon and Persia
Virtual Paul's Missionary Journeys
Virtual Seven Churches of Revelation
Photos of the City of Corinth
Photos of the City of Ephesus

Biblical Archaeology in Museums around the world

A page with a facility to search for artifacts held in museums around the world which have a connection with the Bible. These give information about each artifact, as well as links to the museum's collection website where available showing high resolution photographs of the artifact.

There is also page of photographs from the Israel Museum in Jerusalem of important artifacts.

Search Museums for Biblical Archaeology
Israel Museum Photos

Difficult Theological and Ethical Questions

These are a series of pages looking at some of the more difficult questions of Christian theology, including war, suffering, disappointment and what happens to those who have never heard the Gospel.

Christian Ethics
Never Heard the Gospel
Is there Ever a Just War?
Why Does God Allow Suffering
Handling Disappointment

How to Preach

These are a series of pages giving a practical step-by-step explanation of the process of preparing a message for preaching, and how to lead a small group Bible study.

What is Preaching?
I. Two Approaches to Preaching
II. Study a Passage for Preaching
III. Creating a Message Outline
IV. Making Preaching Relevant
V. Presentation and Public Speaking
VI. Preaching Feedback and Critique
Leading a Small Group Bible Study

Information for SBS staff members

Two pages particularly relevant for people serving as staff on the School of Biblical Studies (SBS) in YWAM. One gives helpful instruction about how to prepare to teach on a book in the SBS. The other gives a list of recommended topics which can be taught about for each book of the Bible.

Teaching on SBS Book Topics for SBS