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How to find Personal Application from Scripture

Julian Spriggs M.A.

VI. Figures of speech VIII. Text layout

Finding relevant personal application

For believers, the main aim of reading and studying the Bible is to find meaningful and relevant application on a personal level. For some passages, finding application can be fairly straightforward. However, for the majority of passages, finding application can be very difficult. Although it can be hard to admit it, many, if not the majority of Christians find much of what they read in the Bible rather remote and meaningless and irrelevant to life today.

The reason for this is that the Bible was not actually originally written for us, and our situation today, whenever 'today' is. The Bible was written over a period of over 2000 years, to various different groups of people in very different historical and cultural situations to us. Each passage in the Bible needs to be interpreted, by seeking to determine what it meant to the author and original readers, before attempting to find helpful application to life today. Excessively literal reading and application of the text can often be of little actual help and can easily cause a lot of confusion and legalism.

Instant application

Some passages of Scripture do not appear to be limited by culture or time, so they can be directly applied to today. I call this instant application. This is the easiest form of application. We read the passage and it immediately means the same to us today as it did to the original readers. Examples would be some of the theological statements in Paul’s letters such as, “All have sinned and fall short of the glory of God; they are now justified by his grace as a gift, through the redemption that is in Christ Jesus ...” (Rom 3:23-24). The truth that Paul proclaimed to his original readers in Rome is the same truth today. However, even with examples like this, a much greater understanding and a deeper revelation will be gained by reading and studying the passage in the wider context of the whole book, and seeking to determine its message to the original readers.

In reality, such passages are only a small minority, when compared with the whole text of the Bible. There are large portions of Scripture which, on a first reading, appear to have little or no relevance to today, which can prove to be quite frustrating to a modern reader. The big question is what we do with these. One option is essentially to ignore them, and focus mostly on the easier passages, which seem to have more meaning to believers today.

In his second letter to Timothy, Paul wrote this well known passage, “All scripture is inspired by God and is useful in teaching, for reproof, for correction, and for training in righteousness, so that everyone who belongs to God may be proficient, equipped for every good work.” (2 Tim 3:16-17). When writing this, he was actually referring to what we now call the Old Testament. At the time he wrote this in the mid 60's AD, much of the New Testament had not yet even been written. Some Gospels and letters had been written, but these were only at a very early stage in the process of being recognised as Scripture. Even the title 'New Testament' would not exist for another 100 years.

For believers today, we can safely assume that this passage is applicable to the whole Bible, so the challenge in this process is to find relevant and meaningful application today from any passage in the Bible, whether in the OT or NT.

The well known writer John Stott called his book on preaching, 'Between Two Worlds'. The job of a preacher is to bridge the gap between the world of the Bible, and the world of today. To bring a relevant message, it is necessary to understand the original literary, historical and cultural context of the passage, and then to bring a message which is relevant, meaningful and helpful to listeners today. This principle is also completely valid for the process of finding personal application from a passage. The target is to be able to bring an application which fits the aims Paul gives in 2 Timothy: teaching, reproof, correction, training in righteousness, and equipping for good works.

This diagram can be a helpful tool in this process:

There are two triangles. The one to the left represents 'THEN'. The base of this triangle represents what the text meant to the original readers, which is the interpretation of the passage. Before being able to make a legitimate application from any passage of Scripture it is necessary to determine its meaning to the original author and readers.

The one to the right represents 'NOW', whenever 'now' is. The base of this triangle represents how the text can be legitimately applied to today.

The triangular shape is significant, with a broad base, rising to a single point at the top. Each triangle has the following three levels:

The Bottom Level - Specific Details

The bottom level represents the specific meaning and detailed message of the passage (whether for then or now). The message often has many aspects and details, represented by the wide base of the triangle. However, these are often restricted to a particular time or culture.

The Middle Level - Principles

The middle level moves more towards general principles, or timeless truths, which can be drawn from the passage which are no longer limited by time or culture. There are far fewer principles than specific details, represented by the narrowing of the triangles.

The Top Level - Foundations

The top level represents the single foundational principle, which is love. This is why each triangle rises to a single point.

The great message of the whole Bible is that God loves us (Jn 3:16), and has provided a means of salvation through Jesus. When Jesus was asked what was the most important commandment, his answer was to love God, and love your neighbour. This means that every passage of Scripture to a greater or lesser extent illustrates one or more of these aspects of the foundational principle of love:
1. God loves us
2. We are commanded to love God
3. We are commanded to love our neighbour.

It is these three aspects of the foundational principle of love that form the heart or core of the Gospel. These become the non-negotiable truths of the Christian faith.

Using the triangles diagram in the application process

The aim in the application process is to move from the base of the left triangle to the base of the right triangle, from interpretation to application, from what it meant to the original readers, to the way the text can be found to be relevant to believers today.

As noted above, for some passages it is possible to move directly from then to now, as there is instant application. But for the vast majority of passages, there are one or more barriers which prevent this.

Four barriers which prevent instant application

I have put four barriers on the diagram. The order of these is not important, and it is possible that more barriers could be added to the list. If one or more of these barriers is identified when reading a passage, then instant application is impossible.

The individual barrier

This occurs when the passage was originally written to, or describes events in the life of a particular individual person, or group like a church. An obvious example was when Paul asked Timothy to bring his cloak and books (2 Tim 4:13).

The cultural barrier

This is when there are significant cultural differences in the way people lived between then and now. These would include many aspects of everyday life, such as what people eat, what they wear, and various social customs. When cultural elements are identified, the tendency today is to ignore the passage altogether. However, Paul’s statement from 2 Timothy still holds, so we do not really have that option. There may be difficulties in deciding how to apply the passage, but we need to try.

The barrier of time or history

This can often be similar to the first barrier, as many passages fit closely into their own time period in history. The fact that we are now living between 2000 and 4000 years later is very significant.

The Old Testament barrier

The Old Testament, or Covenant, described God’s relationship with Old Testament Israel. Jesus introduced a New Covenant through his death and resurrection, which fulfilled the Old Covenant, bringing it to its completion. Believers in Jesus are not bound by the Old Covenant. This means that every passage in the OT has to be understood in its context of the Old Covenant with Israel, but when seeking to bring application, the OT has to be understood in the light of the greater revelation that was brought through Jesus and his Kingdom.

Moving to principles

If one or more barriers are identified, then instant application is not possible. It is necessary to move up the left-hand triangle to the general principle. These are timeless truths which are not limited to a particular individual, culture, or whether they come from the OT. Any passage in Scripture will have one or more timeless truths. Often there will be one major truth from the passage and a number of smaller ones. For some passages, identifying these can be quite a challenge.

Bringing a principle to today

Once a timeless truth is identified, it can be brought over above the barriers to today. However, merely identifying timeless truths is not application. By its very nature, application implies a change of thought, which should lead to an appropriate action, or change in lifestyle. It is necessary to bring the timeless truth or principle and make it concrete into today’s world, moving down to the base of the right-hand triangle. As noted above, this represents what the passage means to us today, whenever today is. In the same way that the passage had a specific detailed message to the original readers, application has the aim of bringing a specific detailed message to readers today. This can be on a personal level, but also on a community level, to the church, or even to nations or the global community.

To conclude, these are a few examples of how to use the triangles when seeking to find application from any passage of Scripture.

The Book of Philemon

Paul wrote to Philemon asking him to welcome back his runaway slave Onesimus, to forgive him, and to recognise that he had become a believer and valuable co-worker with Paul. Philemon was called to welcome Onesimus in the same way as he would welcome the apostle Paul (v17). At least two barriers prevent any instant application. One is the individual barrier. Paul was asking his friend Philemon to forgive his slave Onesimus. These were individuals who lived nearly 2000 years ago. There is also a cultural barrier of slavery. Slavery was central to Roman society, and hopefully not such an issue in most societies today.

For more about slavery in New Testament times, please see the page about Slavery.

We therefore need to find some timeless principles in order to cross the barriers, and find relevant application to today. The main principle is that of forgiveness. Paul saw the great importance of the relationship between Philemon and Onesimus being restored. So after reading this book we need to ask whether there are any individuals who have wronged us we need to forgive, or if there any we have wronged we need to ask forgiveness from. It is only at this stage we have actually applied the Book of Philemon.

Another principle is that this letter shows the power of the Gospel to cross over the social and racial barriers of the time. Paul was a Jew, Philemon and Onesimus were Gentiles. Philemon was a slave owner, and Onesimus was a slave. These three individuals are all one in Christ representing each side of the greatest religious and social divisions of their time. This book seriously challenges any racial or social prejudices we may have.

This book also challenges the institution of slavery, calling Philemon to recognise his slave no longer as his property, but as a fellow human being, and valuable member of the body of Christ.

Jesus washing the disciples’ feet (Jn 13:1-11)

This is a well-known account in the ministry of Jesus, when shortly before his betrayal he took the job of a servant to wash the feet of his disciples. Interpretation is fairly straightforward, as this passage is a narrative, which records events that happened. Some people claim that believers today must also wash each other’s feet as a demonstration of humility.

However, in this passage, again there are barriers. First is the individual barrier, as the passage is a narrative which records Jesus washing the feet of the disciples. There is also a strong cultural barrier. Washing feet in first century Israel was an important part of hospitality. People generally wore sandals, so feet became dusty, dirty and uncomfortable. When welcoming a guest to a home, it was the responsibility of the host to command a servant to wash the feet of his guest. At the last supper, there were no servants present, and none of the disciples were willing to do this menial task for the others. This is why Jesus himself took on the task of a servant to wash his disciples’ feet, saying afterwards, “So if I, your Lord and Teacher, have washed your feet, you also ought to wash one another’s feet. For I have set you an example, that you also should do as I have done to you”. (v14-15).

Moving to the general principle, Jesus gave a very practical demonstration to his disciples the need to be willing to serve one another, not lording it over one another. So to find application from this passage, we may need to move beyond the literal washing of feet. Because washing feet is not culturally relevant in many societies today, there may be other more appropriate menial tasks we should be willing to do to serve one another, and to demonstrate humility. These could include doing tasks we often dislike or look down upon, like doing the washing-up, scrubbing the floor, cleaning the toilets, weeding the garden, or even washing feet if necessary and culturally appropriate.

Wearing tassels on your cloak (Deut 22:12, Num 15:37-41)

In the law of Moses is this command, “You shall make tassels on the four corners of the cloak with which you cover yourself” (Deut 22:12). For the people of Israel, the command was direct, that they should add tassels on the four corners of their cloaks. In this passage no reason is given for this, and looking at the immediate context does not add anything particularly helpful. However there is a similar command in the Book of Numbers, “The LORD said to Moses: Speak to the Israelites, and tell them to make fringes on the corners of their garments throughout their generations and to put a blue cord on the fringe at each corner. You have the fringe so that, when you see it, you will remember all the commandments of the LORD and do them, and not follow the lust of your own eyes ...” (Num 15:37ff). This also gives the reason for the command.

When attempting to find application from this command, again it hits at least two barriers. The first is the cultural barrier, and the second is that it is in the Old Testament.

Most instructions about dress in the Bible should be considered to be strongly cultural, as the style of clothing varies dramatically between cultures and over time as well. To insist that believers today should literally wear cloaks with tassels on them would become a legalism which is culturally anachronistic, as well as serving no real helpful purpose.

These two passages are included in the Law of Moses, in the Old Covenant, so are not binding on New Covenant believers, unless the same instruction is clearly brought forward into the New Testament. It therefore comes up against the Old Testament barrier.

The most frequent response to passages such as these is to ignore them, dismissing them as merely cultural. However, they still are part of God’s inspired Word, and according to Paul, valuable for teaching, reproof, correction, training in righteousness, and equipping for good works. Therefore we need to find relevant and legitimate application for today, if we are going to use Scripture properly.

Because of these barriers, it is necessary to move to the timeless principle. Help is given in the second passage where the reason for the command is given. When seeking to interpret and apply OT laws, one of the key questions to ask is why God gave that particular command to Israel. Each of his laws has a logical purpose and reason for being there. The reason for the law often gives us the general principle.

For more about how to understand the OT Law, please see the page about OT Law.

The reason for this law is that the fringe or tassel should act as a reminder to remember the commandments of the LORD and do them, and not follow the lust of your own eyes (Num 15:39). The context of this reminder would appear to be when someone was tempted sexually. So the general principle would be having some object, perhaps worn on the body or clothing, to remind us to serve and obey God, and to resist temptation. This is not a legalistic command, but could be a helpful wise action. The form of this could vary greatly, but could include wearing a badge or necklace with a cross on it. These can act as a reminder, but also as a silent witness to others.

VI. Figures of speech VIII. Text layout

The Bible

Pages which look at issues relevant to the whole Bible, such as the Canon of Scripture, as well as doctrinal and theological issues. There are also pages about the Apocrypha, Pseudepigrapha and 'lost books' of the Old Testament.

Also included are lists of the quotations of the OT in the NT, and passages of the OT quoted in the NT.

Why These 66 Books?
Books in the Hebrew Scriptures
Quotations in NT From OT
OT Passages Quoted in NT
History of the English Bible
Twelve Books of the Apocrypha
The Pseudepigrapha - False Writings
Lost Books Referenced in OT

Old Testament Overview

This is a series of six pages which give a historical overview through the Old Testament and the inter-testamental period, showing where each OT book fits into the history of Israel.

OT 1: Creation and Patriarchs
OT 2: Exodus and Wilderness
OT 3: Conquest and Monarchy
OT 4: Divided kingdom and Exile
OT 5: Return from Exile
OT 6: 400 Silent Years

New Testament Overview

This is a series of five pages which give a historical overview through the New Testament, focusing on the Ministry of Jesus, Paul's missionary journeys, and the later first century. Again, it shows where each book of the NT fits into the history of the first century.

NT 1: Life and Ministry of Jesus
NT 2: Birth of the Church
NT 3: Paul's Missionary Journeys
NT 4: Paul's Imprisonment
NT 5: John and Later NT

Introductions to Old Testament Books

This is an almost complete collection of introductions to each of the books in the Old Testament. Each contains information about the authorship, date, historical setting and main themes of the book.

Genesis Exodus Leviticus
Numbers Deuteronomy

Joshua Judges Ruth
1 & 2 Samuel 1 & 2 Kings Chronicles
Ezra & Nehemiah Esther

Job Psalms Proverbs

Isaiah Jeremiah Lamentations
Ezekiel Daniel

Hosea Joel Amos
Obadiah Jonah Micah
Nahum Habakkuk Zephaniah
Haggai Zechariah Malachi

Introductions to New Testament Books

This is a collection of introductions to each of the 27 books in the New Testament. Each contains information about the authorship, date, historical setting and main themes of the book.

Matthew's Gospel Mark's Gospel Luke's Gospel
John's Gospel

Book of Acts

Romans 1 Corinthians 2 Corinthians
Galatians Ephesians Philippians
Colossians 1 & 2 Thessalonians 1 Timothy
2 Timothy Titus Philemon

Hebrews James 1 Peter
2 Peter 1 John 2 & 3 John


Old Testament History

Information about the different nations surrounding Israel, and other articles concerning Old Testament history and the inter-testamental period.

Canaanite Religion
Israel's Enemies During the Conquest
Syria / Aram
The Assyrian Empire
Babylon and its History
The Persian Empire
The Greek Empire
The 400 Silent Years
The Ptolemies and Seleucids
Antiochus IV - Epiphanes

Old Testament Studies

A series of articles covering more general topics for OT studies. These include a list of the people named in the OT and confirmed by archaeology. There are also pages to convert the different units of measure in the OT, such as the talent, cubit and ephah into modern units.

More theological topics include warfare in the ancient world, the Holy Spirit in the OT, and types of Jesus in the OT.

OT People Confirmed by Archaeology
The Jewish Calendar
The Importance of Paradox
Talent Converter (weights)
Cubit Converter (lengths)
OT People Search
Ephah Converter (volumes)
Holy War in the Ancient World
The Holy Spirit in the OT
Types of Jesus in the OT

Studies in the Pentateuch (Gen - Deut)

A series of articles covering studies in the five books of Moses. Studies in the Book of Genesis look at the historical nature of the early chapters of Genesis, the Tower of Babel and the Table of the Nations.

There are also pages about covenants, the sacrifices and offerings, the Jewish festivals and the tabernacle, as well as the issue of tithing.

Are chapters 1-11 of Genesis historical?
Chronology of the Flood
Genealogies of the Patriarchs
Table of the Nations (Gen 10)
Tower of Babel (Gen 11:1-9)

Authorship of the Pentateuch
Chronology of the Wilderness Years
Names of God in the OT
Covenants in the OT
The Ten Commandments
The Tabernacle and its Theology
Sacrifices and Offerings
The Jewish Festivals
Balaam and Balak
Highlights from Deuteronomy
Overview of Deuteronomy

Studies in the Old Testament History Books (Josh - Esther)

Articles containing studies and helpful information for the history books. These include a list of the dates of the kings of Israel and Judah, a summary of the kings of the Northern Kingdom of Israel, and studies of Solomon, Jeroboam and Josiah.

There are also pages describing some of the historical events of the period, including the Syro-Ephraimite War, and the Assyrian invasion of Judah in 701 BC.

Dates of the Kings of Judah and Israel
King Solomon
The Kings of Israel
King Jeroboam I of Israel
The Syro-Ephraimite War (735 BC)
Sennacherib's Invasion of Judah (701 BC)
King Josiah of Judah
Differences Between Kings and Chronicles
Chronology of the post-exilic period

Studies in the Old Testament Prophets (Is - Mal)

Articles containing studies and helpful information for the OT prophets. These include a page looking at the way the prophets look ahead into their future, a page looking at the question of whether Satan is a fallen angel, and a page studying the seventy weeks of Daniel.

There are also a series of pages giving a commentary through the text of two of the books:
Isaiah (13 pages) and Daniel (10 pages).

Prophets and the Future
The Call of Jeremiah (Jer 1)
The Fall of Satan? (Is 14, Ezek 28)
Daniel Commentary (10 pages)
Isaiah Commentary (13 pages)
Formation of the Book of Jeremiah

Daniel's Seventy Weeks (Dan 9:24-27)

New Testament Studies

A series of articles covering more general topics for NT studies. These include a list of the people in the NT confirmed by archaeology.

More theological topics include the Kingdom of God and the Coming of Christ.

NT People Confirmed by Archaeology
The Kingdom of God / Heaven
Parousia (Coming of Christ)
The Importance of Paradox

Studies in the Four Gospels (Matt - John)

A series of articles covering various studies in the four gospels. These include a list of the unique passages in each of the Synoptic Gospels and helpful information about the parables and how to interpret them.

Some articles look at the life and ministry of Jesus, including his genealogy, birth narratives, transfiguration, the triumphal entry into Jerusalem, and the seating arrangements at the Last Supper.

More theological topics include the teaching about the Holy Spirit as the Paraclete and whether John the Baptist fulfilled the predictions of the coming of Elijah.

Unique Passages in the Synoptic Gospels
The SynopticProblem
Genealogy of Jesus (Matt 1)
Birth Narratives of Jesus
Understanding the Parables
Peter's Confession and the Transfiguration
Was John the Baptist Elijah?
The Triumphal Entry
The Olivet Discourse (Mark 13)
Important themes in John's Gospel
John's Gospel Prologue (John 1)
Jesus Fulfilling Jewish Festivals
Reclining at Table at the Last Supper
The Holy Spirit as the Paraclete

Studies in the Book of Acts and the New Testament Letters

A series of articles covering various studies in the Book of Acts and the Letters, including Paul's letters. These include a page studying the messages given by the apostles in the Book of Acts, and the information about the financial collection that Paul made during his third missionary journey. More theological topics include Paul's teaching on Jesus as the last Adam, and descriptions of the church such as the body of Christ and the temple, as well as a look at redemption and the issue of fallen angels.

There are a series of pages giving a commentary through the text of five of the books:
Romans (7 pages), 1 Corinthians (7 pages), Galatians (3 pages), Philemon (1 page) and Hebrews (7 pages)

Apostolic Messages in the Book of Acts
Paul and His Apostleship
Collection for the Saints
The Church Described as a Temple
Church as the Body of Christ
Jesus as the Last Adam
Food Offered to Idols
Paul's Teaching on Headcoverings
Who are the Fallen Angels
The Meaning of Redemption
What is the Church?
Paul and the Greek Games

Romans Commentary (7 pages)

1 Corinthians Commentary (7 pages)

Galatians Commentary (3 pages)

Philemon Commentary (1 page)

Hebrews Commentary (7 pages)

Studies in the Book of Revelation

Articles containing studies and helpful information for the study of the Book of Revelation and topics concerning Eschatology (the study of end-times).

These include a description of the structure of the book, a comparison and contrast between the good and evil characters in the book and a list of the many allusions to the OT. For the seven churches, there is a page which gives links to their location on Google maps.

There is a page studying the important theme of Jesus as the Lamb, which forms the central theological truth of the book. There are pages looking at the major views of the Millennium, as well as the rapture and tribulation, as well as a list of dates of the second coming that have been mistakenly predicted through history.

There is also a series of ten pages giving a detailed commentry through the text of the Book of Revelation.

Introduction to the Book of Revelation
Characters Introduced in the Book
Structure of Revelation
List of Allusions to OT
The Description of Jesus as the Lamb
Virtual Seven Churches of Revelation
The Nero Redivius Myth
The Millennium (1000 years)
The Rapture and the Tribulation
Different Approaches to Revelation
Predicted Dates of the Second Coming

Revelation Commentary (10 pages)

How to do Inductive Bible Study

These are a series of pages giving practical help showing how to study the Bible inductively, by asking a series of simple questions. There are lists of observation and interpretation questions, as well as information about the structure and historical background of biblical books, as well as a list of the different types of figures of speech used in the Bible. There is also a page giving helpful tips on how to apply the Scriptures personally.

How to Study the Bible Inductively
I. The Inductive Study Method
II. Observation Questions
III. Interpretation Questions
IV. Structure of Books
V. Determining the Historical background
VI. Identifying Figures of Speech
VII. Personal Application
VIII. Text Layout

Types of Literature in the Bible

These are a series of pages giving practical help showing how to study each of the different types of book in the Bible by appreciating the type of literature being used. These include historical narrative, law, wisdom, prophets, Gospels, Acts, letters and Revelation.

It is most important that when reading the Bible we are taking note of the type of literature we are reading. Each type needs to be considered and interpreted differently as they have different purposes.

How to Understand OT Narratives
How to Understand OT Law
Hebrew Poetry
OT Wisdom Literature
Understanding the OT Prophets
The Four Gospels
The Parables of Jesus
The Book of Acts
How to Understand the NT Letters
Studying End Times (Eschatology)
The Book of Revelation

Geography and Archaeology

These are a series of pages giving geographical and archaeological information relevant to the study of the Bible. There is a page where you can search for a particular geographical location and locate it on Google maps, as well as viewing photographs on other sites.

There are also pages with photographs from Ephesus and Corinth.

Search for Geographical Locations
Major Archaeological Sites in Israel
Archaeological Sites in Assyria, Babylon and Persia
Virtual Paul's Missionary Journeys
Virtual Seven Churches of Revelation
Photos of the City of Corinth
Photos of the City of Ephesus

Biblical Archaeology in Museums around the world

A page with a facility to search for artifacts held in museums around the world which have a connection with the Bible. These give information about each artifact, as well as links to the museum's collection website where available showing high resolution photographs of the artifact.

There is also page of photographs from the Israel Museum in Jerusalem of important artifacts.

Search Museums for Biblical Archaeology
Israel Museum Photos

Difficult Theological and Ethical Questions

These are a series of pages looking at some of the more difficult questions of Christian theology, including war, suffering, disappointment and what happens to those who have never heard the Gospel.

Christian Ethics
Never Heard the Gospel
Is there Ever a Just War?
Why Does God Allow Suffering
Handling Disappointment

How to Preach

These are a series of pages giving a practical step-by-step explanation of the process of preparing a message for preaching, and how to lead a small group Bible study.

What is Preaching?
I. Two Approaches to Preaching
II. Study a Passage for Preaching
III. Creating a Message Outline
IV. Making Preaching Relevant
V. Presentation and Public Speaking
VI. Preaching Feedback and Critique
Leading a Small Group Bible Study

Information for SBS staff members

Two pages particularly relevant for people serving as staff on the School of Biblical Studies (SBS) in YWAM. One gives helpful instruction about how to prepare to teach on a book in the SBS. The other gives a list of recommended topics which can be taught about for each book of the Bible.

Teaching on SBS Book Topics for SBS