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Canaanite Religion

Unknown author

At the time of the conquest under Joshua, Canaan was a land of city-states, each king owned the land and distributed it as he wished. It was a feudal system, with each king independent and fighting each other. These once influential kingdoms were considerably decadent when Joshua began his campaign. The challenge was that each stronghold had to be conquered as a separate nation. However, the separate kingdoms united for retaliation against Israel, the five Amorite kings for example.

Archaeology has revealed a culture of fine arts and elaborate architecture. Pottery was renowned and a favourable geographical position encouraged trade with Egypt, Northern Mesopotamia and Cyprus.

The land was much coveted by the super-powers, either as an advance base for future expansion or as a base of resistance to counter or discourage any idea of invasion. At the time of the conquest (1400 - 1200 BC), Egypt was protecting Canaan, but was weak. The Tel El Amarna letters (clay tablets) record correspondence between Canaanite kings and Egypt regarding the threat of invasion. The invaders have been possibly identified as the Hebrew people.

The ethical problem raised by the genocide commanded by God can be answered by taking a closer look at the Canaanite religion.

Canaanite religion

Through archaeology, the second millennium BC Canaanite religious system has become notorious for its depravity. The Phoenician and Canaanite religions were almost identical. It was essentially a nature religion, in which the gods and goddesses were closely associated with the natural cycle of the seasons.

The religion was a crude and debased form of ritual polytheism, the sensuous fertility cult, involving worship of a particularly lewd and orgiastic kind. It proved to be more influential than any other nature religion in the Near East, ensnaring the nation of Israel.

Sacrifices were offered to the gods for two purposes: The first was to appease the god's wrath, an act of propitiation. The second was to to strengthen the god, to enable him to bless those who worshipped him. Prized gifts resulted in greater blessing from the god, particularly when first-born male children were sacrificed.

There were many gods, these were the main ones:
El with his consort Asherah
El’s son Baal with his consort Anat
Baal was in conquest with Mot, the god of misfortune)

The most important items in a Canaanite sanctuary were the altar, the stone pillar (male deity) and the wooden pole (female deity). These sanctuaries were on the tops of hills - the high places, which are often mentioned in OT. Canaanite religion appears also to have incorporated aspects of religion from the surrounding nations into its own worship, including Teshub-Hepa - the Hurrian storm god and consort; the Oriris/Isis cult from Egypt; Shamash the Sun god; Ishtar - the bloodthirsty goddess of love and war; and Tammuz - the fertility god from Mesopotamia.

The male deities


El was the original leader of the pantheon. El was a common name for a God and was used for any divine being, including the God of Israel (Gen 16:13, 21:33, 31:13, 35:7). El was a rather shadowy figure who was worshipped as 'father of man' and the 'father of years'. He was the creator of creators and dwelt at 'the source of the two deeps'. His instructions were conveyed by messengers, to add to his remoteness. His consort was Asherat (wife), the counsellor of the gods, and known to the Israelites as Asherah.


The principal and more active deity was the fertility deity Baal (meaning: master, owner, lord, or husband), sometimes known as Haddu or Hadad, the god of rain and storm. Baal succeeded El as the head of the Canaanite gods. He lived in the lofty mountainous regions of the remote northern heavens. Statuettes portray him as the storm deity, wearing a short skirt and horned helmet (symbolising his strength and fertility), standing with a mace in his upraised hand and a thunderbolt at his left side. His titles included Zabul (Lord of the earth) and Aliyn (The One who prevails).

The name 'Baal' normally described a local deity, together with a local name, for example: Baal of Peor (Num 25:3) or Baal-hermon (Judge 3:3). These were seen as gods of a locality, controlling the fertility of agriculture, beasts and mankind in that limited geographical area. Worship was needed to secure their favour, especially in a dry area like Palestine, with little rainfall and few springs. Baal also described the great nature god, sometimes referred to in plural (1 Kg 18:18). It was most significant that Elijah began his ministry of conflict with the prophets of Baal by declaring that it would not rain (1 Kg 17) - a direct challenge against Baal, the god of rain.

The Baal and Anat cycle described Baal's struggle with Mot, the deity of death, drought, barrenness and misfortune, who challenged the kingship of Baal. At the height of the summer drought (when the land was dying and parched), Baal had to yield to Mot and descend to the underworld realm and was slain. Anat, the consort of Baal, revenged herself by killing Mot, after which she planted his body in the ground. Baal then recovered and a period of prosperity followed, followed once more by the resurgence of Mot. This cycle reflected the alternation of the seasons in the agricultural year. This myth was acted out each year, with accompanying magic. The recovery of Baal and marriage to Anat was the most important event of the year. The worship involved grossly sensuous rites accompanying the sacred marriage in which ritual prostitution of both sexes was a prominent feature.

The female deities

It is difficult to distinguish between the different goddesses. There appear to be three goddesses, being forms of the great goddess of love, motherhood and war.


The names Astarte and Ashtoreth (plural Ashtaroth), meaning 'Queen of heaven' appear to be used in the OT as a generic term for female fertility deities (1 Sam 7:3). Worship of these female deities was widespread over the ancient world up to Roman times, when they were known as Aphrodite (Greek), or Venus (Roman).


Asherah was the consort of El (1 Kg 18:19). Various cult objects and symbols were associated with the worship of Asherah, in which she was thought to reside. The most prominent appears to have been some object of wood such as the image of the goddess herself, which was erected beside the altars of incense and cone pillars of the Canaanite shrines. It was held in abhorrence by the faithful Israelites, who cut them down and burned them. In the KJV, the Hebrew name 'Asherah' is rendered 'grove', relating the cult object to the place it was worshipped.

Anat or Anath

The character of Anat shows the depraved nature of Canaanite religion. She was the sister and spouse of Baal. Anat was the goddess of love (fertility) and war. Both Anat and Astarte were described as the great goddesses who conceive but do not bear. Jeremiah's home town of Anathoth contains the name Anat. Anat lamented over Baal's descent to the underworld and took vengeance on Mot. This vengeance is described in terms appropriate to the harvesting, winnowing, roasting, grinding and sowing of corn. She make the autumn and winter seasons yield their fruits.

Cult objects such as lilies (representing sex appeal) and serpents (symbolic of fertility) were associated with the sensuous worship of Anat. Prostitution with extremely perverted sexual acts was a central part of the religious life. In contrast to Egyptian goddesses who were always clothed, Canaanite figurines were naked with exaggerated sexual organs. Vast number of these fertility figurines have been discovered in archaeological excavations.

Canaanite Religion - a stumbling block for the Israelites

It is easy to see how tempting it would be for the Israelites, used to a nomadic desert existence, only used to flocks and herds, to adopt the god and goddesses of the land, especially as the fertility and fruitfulness of the land appeared to depend on them. As the people settled to a more agricultural lifestyle, they felt the need to call on Baal to ensure that the rains would fall. It is also likely that the nomadic Israelites felt inferior to the well-developed society of the Canaanites. They continued to worship Yahweh, who was considered only as one of many gods, the god of Israel.

The sordid and debased nature of Canaanite religion stood in marked contrast to the high ethical ideals of Israel. The absolute lack of moral character in the Canaanite deities made such corrupt practices as ritual prostitution, child sacrifice and licentious worship the normal expressions of religious devotion and fervour. There could be no compromise between the morality of the God of Israel and the debased sensuality of Canaanite religion. Therefore God commanded the Israelites to utterly wipe out the inhabitants of the land. The failure of the Israelites to do this caused great problems for the next 1000 years as they intermarried with the Canaanites and attempted to worship both the Baals and Yahweh.

Other gods

Molech or Moloch

Molech was a deity associated with Ammon (1 Kg 11:7), where it is described as "the abomination of the Ammonites". Worship of Molech involved child sacrifice, described as "making a son or daughter pass through fire as an offering to Molech" (2 Kg 23:10, also Jer 7:31, 19:5). Even kings of Judah were involved in this, Solomon built a high place for Molech east of Jerusalem, probably on the Mount of Olives (1 Kg 11:7), others like Ahaz (2 Chr 28:3), and Manasseh (2 Kg 21:6, 2 Chr 33:6) were condemned for sacrificing their sons. Worship of Molech took place at places known as a 'Topeth' (meaning 'fire pit' in Syriac). One Topeth was in the valley of the son of Hinnom, SW of Jerusalem (2 Kg 23:10, Jer 32:35). Josiah was commended for destroying the high places of Molech during his reforms (2 Kg 23:10,13).


Chemosh was the god of the Moabites (1 Kg 11:7), where it is described as "the abomination of the Moabites". The Moabites were called the people of Chemosh (Num 21:29, Jer 48:46). Worship of this god also involved child sacrifice (2 Kg 3:27). Solomon erected a high place for Chemosh in Jerusalem (1 Kg 11:7), which was finally destroyed by Josiah (2 Kg 23:13).


Dagon was the god of the Philistines. Some people suggest that it was a sea god, half man and half fish. Otherwise it was a fertility god, the Philistine version of the Baals. The Philistines claimed that Dagon had given Samson into their hands (Judges 16:23), and rejoiced at the temple to Dagon in Gaza. When the Philistines capture the ark of the covenant from the Israelites, they placed it in the temple to Dagon in Ashdod (1 Sam 5:2). The presence of the ark caused trouble in Ashdod, including the destruction of the image of Dagon (1 Sam 5:3-5). Saul's head and armour were captured by the Philistines and placed in the temple to Dagon, before they were recaptured by the Israelites (1 Chr 10:10).

The High Places

High places are mentioned over one hundred times in the OT. The Hebrew word is ‘bama’, which is used in two different ways in the OT.

Firstly, the word is used about twenty times, normally in the plural form ‘bamot’, simply to describe a physical height, like a mountain or hill. In this context it carries the overtones of dominance and control, particularly in warfare. Battles took place on hill slopes, so possession of the heights therefore gave lordship over the land (Num 21:28). In his lament for Jonathan, David declares, “Your glory, O Israel, lies slain upon your high places”, and, “Jonathan lies slain upon your high places” (2 Sam 1:19,25).

The prophets asserted that God rides or walks on the heights (Am 4:13; Mic 1:3). God had set Israel on top of the heights of the land (Deut 32:13; Is 58:14). David declared that God had set him secure on the heights (2 Sam 22:34, Ps 18:33). The prophet Habakkuk said that God made him tread upon the heights (Ham 3:19).

The most important use in the OT is to describe the shrines that were often built on the tops of these hills or mountains. Associating heights with lordship may account for their choice of location of shrines. In the thinking of the ancient world each god had their ‘holy mountain’, from where they controlled the local area.

Some bamot's contain a round or flat platform, but the term seems more naturally taken as embracing the whole cult area including altar, stones and houses. Shrines on heights were typical of the early period (Nu 22:41; 1 Sam 9), whereas later they are to be found in towns (2 Kg 17:9) or in one instance in a valley (Jer 7:31). By the end of the monarchy period the term was applied to many types of local shrines, including a small gate shrine, royal centres to foreign gods, large public shrines and local rustic shrines (2 Kg 23). A reconstruction of a high place found in Arad is displayed in the Israel Museum in Jerusalem.

God commanded through Moses that there was to be only one place that the Lord will choose to be worshipped, and that all other places of worship were to be destroyed (Deut 12:2-7). However, it appears that Israel took over Canaanite shrines after the conquest. During the early years of the monarchy, even loyal worshippers of God used the high places (bamot). Samuel offered sacrifices at a high place in the land of Zuph, where he anointed Saul to be king (1 Sam 9). After this, Saul met with a group of prophets coming down from a high place led by lute, fife and drum (1 Sam 10:5).

By the time of Solomon, the high place at Gibeon had risen to unique status and was known as 'the Great High Place'. The tabernacle and altar of bronze which Bezalel, son of Uri, son of Hur had made was kept there and it was at Gibeon that God challenged Solomon in a dream about the character of his reign (1 Kg 3, 2 Chr 1).

Following the division of the kingdom in 922 BC the bamot posed a new threat to the purity of Israel's faith. In the Northern Kingdom Jeroboam built 'houses of high places' as part of his campaign to distract his subjects' attention away from Jerusalem (1 Kg 12:25-33). It is through these high places that Jeroboam ‘made Israel to sin'. These high places (bamot) were nominally dedicated to God, but also included many Canaanite features, such as images, standing stones, and Asherah poles, as well as being where sacred prostitution and other fertility rights were practiced.

The author of the Book of Kings blames the existence and building of high places as a major cause of the collapse and exile of the northern kingdom of Israel, saying that, “The people of Israel secretly did things that were not right against the LORD their God. They built for themselves high places at all their towns, from watchtower to fortified city; they set up for themselves pillars and sacred poles on every high hill and under every green tree; there they made offerings on all the high places, as the nations did whom the LORD carried away before them. They did wicked things, provoking the LORD to anger; they served idols, of which the LORD had said to them, ‘You shall not do this’.” (2 Kg 17:9-12).

In the Southern Kingdom the situation was not much better. The high places (bamot) were revived under Rehoboam (1 Kg 14:23). Attempts to suppress idolatry by Asa and Jehoshaphat had no lasting results, as the high places were not removed (1 Kg 15:14, 22:43). Hezekiah conducted a more thorough reformation, including removing the high places (2 Kg 18:1-8). However his wicked son Manasseh who ‘did more evil than all the kings that were before him’ again rebuilt the high places that his father had destroyed (2 Kg 21:3).

Under Josiah a far-reaching purge was undertaken, when the high places were broken down (2 Kg 23) but his successors were not of his calibre and the shrines were again reviving when the Babylonian army put an end to the Judaean kingdom.

There appears that there was a level of embarrassment felt at the use of these shrines by Israel's heroes. The Talmud and the rabbis maintained that the ban was periodically lifted. It seems more likely that Samuel, Saul and Solomon simply wished to claim these shrines for God without realising the syncretistic dangers which had been plain to Moses and all too accurately vindicated by history.

The Bible

Pages which look at issues relevant to the whole Bible, such as the Canon of Scripture, as well as doctrinal and theological issues. There are also pages about the Apocrypha, Pseudepigrapha and 'lost books' of the Old Testament.

Also included are lists of the quotations of the OT in the NT, and passages of the OT quoted in the NT.

Why These 66 Books?
Books in the Hebrew Scriptures
Quotations in NT From OT
OT Passages Quoted in NT
History of the English Bible
Twelve Books of the Apocrypha
The Pseudepigrapha - False Writings
Lost Books Referenced in OT

Old Testament Overview

This is a series of six pages which give a historical overview through the Old Testament and the inter-testamental period, showing where each OT book fits into the history of Israel.

OT 1: Creation and Patriarchs
OT 2: Exodus and Wilderness
OT 3: Conquest and Monarchy
OT 4: Divided kingdom and Exile
OT 5: Return from Exile
OT 6: 400 Silent Years

New Testament Overview

This is a series of five pages which give a historical overview through the New Testament, focusing on the Ministry of Jesus, Paul's missionary journeys, and the later first century. Again, it shows where each book of the NT fits into the history of the first century.

NT 1: Life and Ministry of Jesus
NT 2: Birth of the Church
NT 3: Paul's Missionary Journeys
NT 4: Paul's Imprisonment
NT 5: John and Later NT

Introductions to Old Testament Books

This is an almost complete collection of introductions to each of the books in the Old Testament. Each contains information about the authorship, date, historical setting and main themes of the book.

Genesis Exodus Leviticus
Numbers Deuteronomy

Joshua Judges Ruth
1 & 2 Samuel 1 & 2 Kings Chronicles
Ezra & Nehemiah Esther

Job Psalms Proverbs

Isaiah Jeremiah Lamentations
Ezekiel Daniel

Hosea Joel Amos
Obadiah Jonah Micah
Nahum Habakkuk Zephaniah
Haggai Zechariah Malachi

Introductions to New Testament Books

This is a collection of introductions to each of the 27 books in the New Testament. Each contains information about the authorship, date, historical setting and main themes of the book.

Matthew's Gospel Mark's Gospel Luke's Gospel
John's Gospel

Book of Acts

Romans 1 Corinthians 2 Corinthians
Galatians Ephesians Philippians
Colossians 1 & 2 Thessalonians 1 Timothy
2 Timothy Titus Philemon

Hebrews James 1 Peter
2 Peter 1 John 2 & 3 John


Old Testament History

Information about the different nations surrounding Israel, and other articles concerning Old Testament history and the inter-testamental period.

Canaanite Religion
Israel's Enemies During the Conquest
Syria / Aram
The Assyrian Empire
Babylon and its History
The Persian Empire
The Greek Empire
The 400 Silent Years
The Ptolemies and Seleucids
Antiochus IV - Epiphanes

Old Testament Studies

A series of articles covering more general topics for OT studies. These include a list of the people named in the OT and confirmed by archaeology. There are also pages to convert the different units of measure in the OT, such as the talent, cubit and ephah into modern units.

More theological topics include warfare in the ancient world, the Holy Spirit in the OT, and types of Jesus in the OT.

OT People Confirmed by Archaeology
The Jewish Calendar
The Importance of Paradox
Talent Converter (weights)
Cubit Converter (lengths)
OT People Search
Ephah Converter (volumes)
Holy War in the Ancient World
The Holy Spirit in the OT
Types of Jesus in the OT

Studies in the Pentateuch (Gen - Deut)

A series of articles covering studies in the five books of Moses. Studies in the Book of Genesis look at the historical nature of the early chapters of Genesis, the Tower of Babel and the Table of the Nations.

There are also pages about covenants, the sacrifices and offerings, the Jewish festivals and the tabernacle, as well as the issue of tithing.

Are chapters 1-11 of Genesis historical?
Chronology of the Flood
Genealogies of the Patriarchs
Table of the Nations (Gen 10)
Tower of Babel (Gen 11:1-9)

Authorship of the Pentateuch
Chronology of the Wilderness Years
Names of God in the OT
Covenants in the OT
The Ten Commandments
The Tabernacle and its Theology
Sacrifices and Offerings
The Jewish Festivals
Balaam and Balak
Highlights from Deuteronomy
Overview of Deuteronomy

Studies in the Old Testament History Books (Josh - Esther)

Articles containing studies and helpful information for the history books. These include a list of the dates of the kings of Israel and Judah, a summary of the kings of the Northern Kingdom of Israel, and studies of Solomon, Jeroboam and Josiah.

There are also pages describing some of the historical events of the period, including the Syro-Ephraimite War, and the Assyrian invasion of Judah in 701 BC.

Dates of the Kings of Judah and Israel
King Solomon
The Kings of Israel
King Jeroboam I of Israel
The Syro-Ephraimite War (735 BC)
Sennacherib's Invasion of Judah (701 BC)
King Josiah of Judah
Differences Between Kings and Chronicles
Chronology of the post-exilic period

Studies in the Old Testament Prophets (Is - Mal)

Articles containing studies and helpful information for the OT prophets. These include a page looking at the way the prophets look ahead into their future, a page looking at the question of whether Satan is a fallen angel, and a page studying the seventy weeks of Daniel.

There are also a series of pages giving a commentary through the text of two of the books:
Isaiah (13 pages) and Daniel (10 pages).

Prophets and the Future
The Call of Jeremiah (Jer 1)
The Fall of Satan? (Is 14, Ezek 28)
Daniel Commentary (10 pages)
Isaiah Commentary (13 pages)
Formation of the Book of Jeremiah

Daniel's Seventy Weeks (Dan 9:24-27)

New Testament Studies

A series of articles covering more general topics for NT studies. These include a list of the people in the NT confirmed by archaeology.

More theological topics include the Kingdom of God and the Coming of Christ.

NT People Confirmed by Archaeology
The Kingdom of God / Heaven
Parousia (Coming of Christ)
The Importance of Paradox

Studies in the Four Gospels (Matt - John)

A series of articles covering various studies in the four gospels. These include a list of the unique passages in each of the Synoptic Gospels and helpful information about the parables and how to interpret them.

Some articles look at the life and ministry of Jesus, including his genealogy, birth narratives, transfiguration, the triumphal entry into Jerusalem, and the seating arrangements at the Last Supper.

More theological topics include the teaching about the Holy Spirit as the Paraclete and whether John the Baptist fulfilled the predictions of the coming of Elijah.

Unique Passages in the Synoptic Gospels
The SynopticProblem
Genealogy of Jesus (Matt 1)
Birth Narratives of Jesus
Understanding the Parables
Peter's Confession and the Transfiguration
Was John the Baptist Elijah?
The Triumphal Entry
The Olivet Discourse (Mark 13)
Important themes in John's Gospel
John's Gospel Prologue (John 1)
Jesus Fulfilling Jewish Festivals
Reclining at Table at the Last Supper
The Holy Spirit as the Paraclete

Studies in the Book of Acts and the New Testament Letters

A series of articles covering various studies in the Book of Acts and the Letters, including Paul's letters. These include a page studying the messages given by the apostles in the Book of Acts, and the information about the financial collection that Paul made during his third missionary journey. More theological topics include Paul's teaching on Jesus as the last Adam, and descriptions of the church such as the body of Christ and the temple, as well as a look at redemption and the issue of fallen angels.

There are a series of pages giving a commentary through the text of five of the books:
Romans (7 pages), 1 Corinthians (7 pages), Galatians (3 pages), Philemon (1 page) and Hebrews (7 pages)

Apostolic Messages in the Book of Acts
Paul and His Apostleship
Collection for the Saints
The Church Described as a Temple
Church as the Body of Christ
Jesus as the Last Adam
Food Offered to Idols
Paul's Teaching on Headcoverings
Who are the Fallen Angels
The Meaning of Redemption
What is the Church?
Paul and the Greek Games

Romans Commentary (7 pages)

1 Corinthians Commentary (7 pages)

Galatians Commentary (3 pages)

Philemon Commentary (1 page)

Hebrews Commentary (7 pages)

Studies in the Book of Revelation

Articles containing studies and helpful information for the study of the Book of Revelation and topics concerning Eschatology (the study of end-times).

These include a description of the structure of the book, a comparison and contrast between the good and evil characters in the book and a list of the many allusions to the OT. For the seven churches, there is a page which gives links to their location on Google maps.

There is a page studying the important theme of Jesus as the Lamb, which forms the central theological truth of the book. There are pages looking at the major views of the Millennium, as well as the rapture and tribulation, as well as a list of dates of the second coming that have been mistakenly predicted through history.

There is also a series of ten pages giving a detailed commentry through the text of the Book of Revelation.

Introduction to the Book of Revelation
Characters Introduced in the Book
Structure of Revelation
List of Allusions to OT
The Description of Jesus as the Lamb
Virtual Seven Churches of Revelation
The Nero Redivius Myth
The Millennium (1000 years)
The Rapture and the Tribulation
Different Approaches to Revelation
Predicted Dates of the Second Coming

Revelation Commentary (10 pages)

How to do Inductive Bible Study

These are a series of pages giving practical help showing how to study the Bible inductively, by asking a series of simple questions. There are lists of observation and interpretation questions, as well as information about the structure and historical background of biblical books, as well as a list of the different types of figures of speech used in the Bible. There is also a page giving helpful tips on how to apply the Scriptures personally.

How to Study the Bible Inductively
I. The Inductive Study Method
II. Observation Questions
III. Interpretation Questions
IV. Structure of Books
V. Determining the Historical background
VI. Identifying Figures of Speech
VII. Personal Application
VIII. Text Layout

Types of Literature in the Bible

These are a series of pages giving practical help showing how to study each of the different types of book in the Bible by appreciating the type of literature being used. These include historical narrative, law, wisdom, prophets, Gospels, Acts, letters and Revelation.

It is most important that when reading the Bible we are taking note of the type of literature we are reading. Each type needs to be considered and interpreted differently as they have different purposes.

How to Understand OT Narratives
How to Understand OT Law
Hebrew Poetry
OT Wisdom Literature
Understanding the OT Prophets
The Four Gospels
The Parables of Jesus
The Book of Acts
How to Understand the NT Letters
Studying End Times (Eschatology)
The Book of Revelation

Geography and Archaeology

These are a series of pages giving geographical and archaeological information relevant to the study of the Bible. There is a page where you can search for a particular geographical location and locate it on Google maps, as well as viewing photographs on other sites.

There are also pages with photographs from Ephesus and Corinth.

Search for Geographical Locations
Major Archaeological Sites in Israel
Archaeological Sites in Assyria, Babylon and Persia
Virtual Paul's Missionary Journeys
Virtual Seven Churches of Revelation
Photos of the City of Corinth
Photos of the City of Ephesus

Biblical Archaeology in Museums around the world

A page with a facility to search for artifacts held in museums around the world which have a connection with the Bible. These give information about each artifact, as well as links to the museum's collection website where available showing high resolution photographs of the artifact.

There is also page of photographs from the Israel Museum in Jerusalem of important artifacts.

Search Museums for Biblical Archaeology
Israel Museum Photos

Difficult Theological and Ethical Questions

These are a series of pages looking at some of the more difficult questions of Christian theology, including war, suffering, disappointment and what happens to those who have never heard the Gospel.

Christian Ethics
Never Heard the Gospel
Is there Ever a Just War?
Why Does God Allow Suffering
Handling Disappointment

How to Preach

These are a series of pages giving a practical step-by-step explanation of the process of preparing a message for preaching, and how to lead a small group Bible study.

What is Preaching?
I. Two Approaches to Preaching
II. Study a Passage for Preaching
III. Creating a Message Outline
IV. Making Preaching Relevant
V. Presentation and Public Speaking
VI. Preaching Feedback and Critique
Leading a Small Group Bible Study

Information for SBS staff members

Two pages particularly relevant for people serving as staff on the School of Biblical Studies (SBS) in YWAM. One gives helpful instruction about how to prepare to teach on a book in the SBS. The other gives a list of recommended topics which can be taught about for each book of the Bible.

Teaching on SBS Book Topics for SBS