Search for page by title (auto-completes)
Advanced search
Translate into

The Bible

OT Overview

NT Overview

OT Books

NT Books

OT History

NT History

OT Studies

Pentateuch Studies

History Books Studies

Studies in the Prophets

NT Studies

Studies in the Gospels

Acts and Letters Studies

Revelation Studies

Inductive Study

Types of Literature


Early Church


Historical Documents

Life Questions

How to Preach


SBS Staff

Advanced Search
Search for word or phrase within each page
Search by OT book and chapter
Search by NT book and chapter

The Fall of Jerusalem (AD 70)

Phil Leage

During Paul's two years in prison in Caesarea, he must have heard of the trouble between Jews and Gentiles in Jerusalem. This tension led to riots, and the Roman Governor Felix intervened, to the disadvantage of the Jews. In the end, Felix sent representatives of both communities to Rome to have the dispute settled by Nero. Felix was relieved of his office, and when the final decision was made, the Jews came out worse. As a result, Jews became second class citizens, and the Greeks began to annoy and insult them.

Josephus considered these troubles to be among the causes of the war against Rome, which broke out in September, A.D. 66. Claudius had favoured to the Jews, but after Nero's decision on Caesarea, a change in imperial policy was detected, which strengthened the popular support of the Zealots, who had been resisting Rome for sixty years.

The actual outbreak of the war started in Jerusalem. Florus had been appointed the Roman governor of Judea, who had a lust for wealth. He raided the temple treasury and seized seventeen talents, with the excuse that they were needed for the imperial services. This led to a riot. His response was to take leading citizens indiscriminately and crucify them, and hand over part of the city to plunder.

In response, the people destroyed the access between the Antonia Fortress and the Temple, to prevent soldiers from making a sudden occupation of the temple area. Syria sent armies in an attempt to bring the trouble to an end. Agrippa exhorted the people to pay their tax arrears, and restore the connecting link between the Temple and Antonia Fortress. But when he said that doing this would be submission to Florus, they changed their minds, until Rome decided to replace him. Eleazer, the captain of the temple, persuaded the priests to stop offering the daily sacrifices for the emperor's welfare. This was an open declaration of rebellion against Rome. The implications of this were serious, but the point of no return was passed when the insurgents seized the Antonia Fortress and wiped out the Roman garrison.

Zealots, who had just taken Masada from the Romans, heard of the revolt in Jerusalem and decided this was their hour. With weapons from the arsenal of Masada, they marched on Jerusalem, led by Menahem and occupied the western part of the city.

Eleazer did not want a rival, so the two groups came to blows. After much violence, Menahem was caught and killed, together with his chief leaders. Those who escaped made their way back to Masada and held out until Spring A.D. 73 (see account of Masada below).

In November of A.D. 66, Cestius Gallus marched south from Syria to deal with the revolt, which the procurator of Judea could no longer control. He occupied Bezetha, the northern suburb of Jerusalem. Then suddenly withdrew, probably because he did not have enough troops to take the rest of Jerusalem. As he marched north, his army was ambushed by Jewish Zealots in the Pass of Beth-horon. This was the same place that Judas Maccabeus had some great victories.

Vespasian arrived the following spring to take charge of the situation, and steadily worked his way through Galilee, Peraea, western Judea and Idumaea. When he was ready to besiege Jerusalem itself, news came of Nero's death (June 9, A.D. 68) and of the civil war that followed in Rome. With this news, Vespasian suspended operations to see what would happen next. During Vespasian's inactivity, three leaders established themselves in Jerusalem:

  • Simon bar Giora in the upper city, with 10,000 Zealots, and 5,000 Idmeans
  • John of Gischala in the temple, with 6,000 men
  • Eleazer, son of Simon, the Zealot leader, in the inner courts of the temple, with 2,400 men

Vespasian then left for Rome to become Emperor, and Titus, his son, finished the task of putting down the revolt. Titus began the siege in April of A.D. 70.

The fall of Jerusalem is a very dark time in Jewish history. Titus, the Roman general, laid siege to the city during the Feast of Passover, so the city was crowded with people. According to Josephus, about million died, and 97,000 captives were taken (this probably rather an exaggeration). It was a time of terrible suffering for the Jews.

As Titus and part of his army approached Jerusalem, he ordered the men to level the land before him, pulling down groves of trees, including fruit trees, and to fill up hollow places, and demolish "rocky areas with iron. While this was being done, he had a line of horsemen between them and the city to stop the Jews attacking the "workers". The clearing of the area took four days. The Romans then pitched their camp and Titus brought in the rest of the troops. He positioned his men seven to eight deep, right around the wall, horsemen, footmen and archers. The Romans attacked from the north side of Jerusalem. There were a total of three walls to get through. The outermost wall had just been built by Herod Agrippa I.

The three groups of Jews in the city would join together to fight the Romans, but otherwise spent their time fighting each other. The area between the upper and lower city was burned and became the battle ground. Josephus says, "They fought it out and did everything that the besiegers could want them to do, for they never suffered anything from the Romans that they did not inflict on each other. The sedition destroyed the city and the Romans destroyed the sedition, which was harder to destroy than just pulling down the walls".

Titus said of the Jews: "These Jews who are only conducted by their madness, do everything with care and circumspection. They continue stratagems and lay ambushes and fortune gives success to the stratagems because they are obedient and preserve their good will and fidelity to one another".

The Romans built engines and battering rams to attack the city, but the Jews would leap over the walls onto the roofs of the battering rams and fight the Romans. The Jews ran in and out of the city to fight, and hinder the Roman activity. After a while, the outer north wall gave way and the Jews retreated to the inner wall. The Romans opened the gates, destroyed the wall and moved their camp into that part of the city.

Titus took the second wall five days after the first. He did not permit his men to kill or plunder, because he wanted to preserve the city and temple. He even promised to restore people's effects to them. He made the mistake of not destroying the second wall, because it was not his intention to destroy Jerusalem. The Jews turned the war into guerilla warfare. They knew that section of the city very well, with its narrow lanes and streets, so they would spring out, kill, and make a quick escape. The fighting got so bad that the Romans had to retreat. Because the wall was not destroyed, the retreat was hampered and more Romans lost their lives. The Jews built up the breach in the wall with bodies, but three days later Titus broke through and destroyed the second wall completely. By this time, many had died of starvation inside the city.

Titus then relaxed the siege, in an attempt to make terms of peace, but the Jews were suspicious, thinking it was a trap, and would not believe that the Romans would forgive. Titus used the lull in fighting to pay his men. Josephus was the go between, but no peace could be arranged.

Some Jews deserted to the Romans, and were released into the country to start new lives. Some of these swallowed gold, so they could retrieve it later, after nature had taken its course! If any of the Zealots found anyone they thought was deserting, they cut their throats. Often rich people were killed with this excuse and their wealth taken. With the refusal of peace, the siege carried on and the misery grew worse. Families sold all they had and fought each other for food. Robbers broke into private houses and stole food from the people. If they found some, they tortured people to make them disclose where they had hidden any food they had. Some people would creep over the walls at night to gather herbs and plants to eat. These were taken as they returned into the city.

Josephus said, "The robbers would stop up the privy parts of the miserable wretches, and drive sharp stakes up their fundamentals". also, "Neither did any other city ever suffer such miseries, nor did any age ever breed a generation more fruitful in wickedness than this from the beginning of time until now..... the Zealots were - scum, spurious, and abortive offspring of our nation".

Some of the Jews who went over the wall to get food were caught by the Romans. Because they were not deserters, Titus had them whipped, tormented and crucified, hoping that the sight of them would cause the Jews to surrender. The Romans rounded up about 500 a day, and because Titus was not willing to take men from the front line to guard them, he allowed the hatred of the soldiers to be vented on them, and they were nailed up on the crosses. Inside the city, the Zealots told the people that the Jews on the crosses were those who deserted to the Romans, not those taken by force.

According to Josephus: "So the soldiers, out of the wrath and hatred they bore the Jews, nailed those they caught, one after one way and another after another, to the crosses by way of jest. Their multitude was so great that room was wanting for crosses and crosses (ie. wood) wanting for bodies".

The Romans built banks against the wall and the Jews made a counter attack. They rushed out of the city and fearlessly fought with the Romans. They destroyed the wooden ramps with fire, engaging in hand to hand fighting. The Jews fought wildly, as they felt they had nothing to lose. The destruction of the ramps was a major setback for the Romans, as wood was very scarce and had to be brought from miles away. They despaired of taking the city.

Josephus wrote "The armies also were mixed one among another and the dust that was raised so far hindered them from seeing one another, and the noise so great it hindered them from hearing one another, that neither side could discern an enemy from a friend".

Titus had a council with the commanders and decided to build a wall all around the city to stop the food getting in and the people getting out. The famine inside got much worse. Whole families died together. Upper rooms were full of women and children who were dying from famine. The lanes of the city were full of the dead bodies of the aged, there was death all over the city. As the suffering grew worse, so did the robbers. They would break open the houses of the dead and plunder the coverings of their bodies.

The dead bodies were thrown over the walls. Titus saw this and groaned. Wanting to relieve some of the miseries, he renewed his attacks and made new banks, bringing wood from eleven miles away. These were made stronger and more powerful than before. The miseries grew worse. When deserters fled from the city, they were caught by Syrian and Arabian troops, and were cut open to see if they had any gold in them! In one night 2,000 such persons were killed. Titus tried to stop it, but was unable to do so. At this time, thousands of dead bodies were thrown out of the city and people were searching the common sewers and cattle dung hills to eat any dung they could find.

Eventually the Romans captured the tower of Antonia, the Fortress at the N.W. corner of the temple, and demolished it. Josephus gave another speech and a number of Jews deserted to the Romans. Because the Romans had a high regard for holy places, they did not want to destroy the temple, and offered to fight the battle elsewhere, if John would move out. Titus was disgusted at the way the Jews treated their holy place. The Jews thought that this offer came out of fear, and grew insolent, so the war was renewed. As the place between the tower of Antonia and the temple was narrow, Titus could not get the whole army in. He chose the most valiant 30 soldiers from every hundred to form a special squad and attacked the guard of the temple. Other parts were demolished to enlarge the entrance and make a ramp. Then they set the temple on fire. The Jews made a trap by getting the Romans to retreat into the court of the Gentiles, and then they set it on fire.

Meanwhile, hunger in the city was unbearable. Men ate anything, even the leather of shoes and shields, or wisps of hay. Josephus described a case of a mother cooking her son and eating half of him. With a ramp set up, Titus attacked the temple. He wanted to save it, but because his own men were in danger, he gave orders to stop at nothing and the gates were set on fire. Finally, the whole temple was set on fire and there was great bloodshed. The soldiers just went mad. All the hatred that had grown in their hearts was let loose and they killed everyone in sight - children, old men, priest - and plundered the gold and silver. They took so much gold that the price of gold dropped in the Syrian gold market to half its former value.

The whole temple area was full of blood and bodies. At this stage, Titus wanted the remainder of the Jews to surrender, but they refused, so he gave orders to burn and plunder the rest of the city. The lower city had already been plundered and burned by the civil war, so the Romans began to take the upper city. The upper city was full of dead bodies, killed either by famine or by the Zealots, who murdered anyone they thought was planning to desert. Deserters were now sold as slaves, but no one wanted them, so little or no money was paid for them.

As the Romans entered the upper city, the Jews fled in fear. The Romans killed everyone in sight. They burst into houses, but left them because of the foul stench of the dead in them. Then they set the city on fire. Josephus says there was so much blood that in places the fires were quenched. Some Jews, including Simon and John, fled into underground caverns.

The Romans grew tired of killing, so they killed only those in arms, the aged and the infirm. They shut others up in the court of women. Those "in flowering years" were sent to Egyptian mines or sent to Rome to the theatres to be killed by the sword or beast, and those under seventeen were sent for slavery. (Deut 28:68, Hos 8:13, 9:6).

97,000 captives, 1,100,000 killed - most of them were not citizens of Jerusalem, but were there for the Feast of the Passover. There may have been up to three million people in the city at the start of the war. The Romans searched the caverns and killed those they found. John was taken for perpetual imprisonment and Simon was taken to Rome to be slain. They broke down the walls of the city so that it was totally level with the ground, apart from a few towers.


Masada was the last stronghold of the Jewish war AD 66-70. All the other rebellion had been crushed. Flavus Silva was Roman procurator, and he lead the Roman armies.

Eleazar was the captain of the Zealots in Masada, called Sicarii. Anyone who submitted to taxation by Caesar, they treated with plundering, driving away their cattle, or setting their property on fire. Josephus makes his view of these men clear, saying they used Jewish fervour as an excuse for evil deeds.

To take this city, the Romans followed their normal procedure, building a camp, and a wall all around the city. This all was not high, just a token of their claiming power over the city. Because of the desert location, the Romans had water brought there by Jewish slaves. Masada was a very high rock sticking out of the ground with "no place for an animal to ascend, apart from 2 places - with great difficulty, on the east and one on the west" - Josephus.

Jonathan, the high-priest, first built the fortress and called it Masada. Herod the Great rebuilt it, making it a strong fortress, as well as a palace. The soil on top of the rock was very fertile, so it was used for agriculture to provide for the people inside the fortress. Places were built to collect rain water, so it was as if there was a fountain there. On the eastern side, it was too dangerous to take an army, and on the western side Herod built a tower 1000 cubits from the top. In the fortress there were large quantities of corn, oil, dates and wine. There were weapons for 10,000 in the fortress too. Herod had prepared the fortress for two dangers:
a. Fear of Jews rebelling against him.
b. Cleopatra of Egypt, who wanted to rule Judea.

Eleazer took Masada by treachery and made it his stronghold. The Romans, despite the height of the fortress, moved earth to make a ramp against it. When the Jews started killing the Romans working on the ramps, the Romans used Jewish slaves - the Jews would not kill their own people. When the ramp was 300 cubits from the top, the Romans raised up towers and battering rams to knock down the fortress wall. They eventually broke through the wall, but the Zealots had made a wall of wood behind it and packed it with earth, so that the blows of the battering rams would be deadened. The Romans then tried to set the wall on fire. At this point, a north wind was blowing which threatened to spread the fire to the machines of the Romans. However, all of a sudden, the wind direction changed and the Zealot's wall was burnt down.

That night, the Romans increased the watch, thinking the Zealots might try to escape, but his was far from the mind of Eleazer. Eleazer gave a very moving speech saying it was better to die than to be slaves in the Roman battery ships.. Some resisted this, so he gave another speech, so moving that, before he had finished it, the people were saying: "Let us get on with it!" Each man took his wife and family, gave them a long embrace and killed them - each man killed his nearest relations.

They brought all they had into a heap and set it on fire. They displayed the food, so the Romans would know it was not through lack of food they did what they did. They chose ten men by lot, these killed the men, then one was chosen who killed the nine, he then killed himself after checking all were dead and setting the palace on fire. Two women and five children escaped by hiding in the water-ground caverns.

960 died in all including women and children. The next day the Romans were ready to fight, but found no resistance, just silence. They called out and the two women came out and told them what had happened. At first the Romans did not believe it, but then they found it to be true. Josephus says "they had no pleasure in it!"

The Bible

Pages which look at issues relevant to the whole Bible, such as the Canon of Scripture, as well as doctrinal and theological issues. There are also pages about the Apocrypha, Pseudepigrapha and 'lost books' of the Old Testament.

Also included are lists of the quotations of the OT in the NT, and passages of the OT quoted in the NT.

Why These 66 Books?
Books in the Hebrew Scriptures
Quotations in NT From OT
OT Passages Quoted in NT
History of the English Bible
Twelve Books of the Apocrypha
The Pseudepigrapha - False Writings
Lost Books Referenced in OT

Old Testament Overview

This is a series of six pages which give a historical overview through the Old Testament and the inter-testamental period, showing where each OT book fits into the history of Israel.

OT 1: Creation and Patriarchs
OT 2: Exodus and Wilderness
OT 3: Conquest and Monarchy
OT 4: Divided kingdom and Exile
OT 5: Return from Exile
OT 6: 400 Silent Years

New Testament Overview

This is a series of five pages which give a historical overview through the New Testament, focusing on the Ministry of Jesus, Paul's missionary journeys, and the later first century. Again, it shows where each book of the NT fits into the history of the first century.

NT 1: Life and Ministry of Jesus
NT 2: Birth of the Church
NT 3: Paul's Missionary Journeys
NT 4: Paul's Imprisonment
NT 5: John and Later NT

Introductions to Old Testament Books

This is an almost complete collection of introductions to each of the books in the Old Testament. Each contains information about the authorship, date, historical setting and main themes of the book.

Genesis Exodus Leviticus
Numbers Deuteronomy

Joshua Judges Ruth
1 & 2 Samuel 1 & 2 Kings Chronicles
Ezra & Nehemiah Esther

Job Psalms Proverbs

Isaiah Jeremiah Lamentations
Ezekiel Daniel

Hosea Joel Amos
Obadiah Jonah Micah
Nahum Habakkuk Zephaniah
Haggai Zechariah Malachi

Introductions to New Testament Books

This is a collection of introductions to each of the 27 books in the New Testament. Each contains information about the authorship, date, historical setting and main themes of the book.

Matthew's Gospel Mark's Gospel Luke's Gospel
John's Gospel

Book of Acts

Romans 1 Corinthians 2 Corinthians
Galatians Ephesians Philippians
Colossians 1 & 2 Thessalonians 1 Timothy
2 Timothy Titus Philemon

Hebrews James 1 Peter
2 Peter 1 John 2 & 3 John


Old Testament History

Information about the different nations surrounding Israel, and other articles concerning Old Testament history and the inter-testamental period.

Canaanite Religion
Israel's Enemies During the Conquest
Syria / Aram
The Assyrian Empire
Babylon and its History
The Persian Empire
The Greek Empire
The 400 Silent Years
The Ptolemies and Seleucids
Antiochus IV - Epiphanes

Old Testament Studies

A series of articles covering more general topics for OT studies. These include a list of the people named in the OT and confirmed by archaeology. There are also pages to convert the different units of measure in the OT, such as the talent, cubit and ephah into modern units.

More theological topics include warfare in the ancient world, the Holy Spirit in the OT, and types of Jesus in the OT.

OT People Confirmed by Archaeology
The Jewish Calendar
The Importance of Paradox
Talent Converter (weights)
Cubit Converter (lengths)
OT People Search
Ephah Converter (volumes)
Holy War in the Ancient World
The Holy Spirit in the OT
Types of Jesus in the OT

Studies in the Pentateuch (Gen - Deut)

A series of articles covering studies in the five books of Moses. Studies in the Book of Genesis look at the historical nature of the early chapters of Genesis, the Tower of Babel and the Table of the Nations.

There are also pages about covenants, the sacrifices and offerings, the Jewish festivals and the tabernacle, as well as the issue of tithing.

Are chapters 1-11 of Genesis historical?
Chronology of the Flood
Genealogies of the Patriarchs
Table of the Nations (Gen 10)
Tower of Babel (Gen 11:1-9)

Authorship of the Pentateuch
Chronology of the Wilderness Years
Names of God in the OT
Covenants in the OT
The Ten Commandments
The Tabernacle and its Theology
Sacrifices and Offerings
The Jewish Festivals
Balaam and Balak
Highlights from Deuteronomy
Overview of Deuteronomy

Studies in the Old Testament History Books (Josh - Esther)

Articles containing studies and helpful information for the history books. These include a list of the dates of the kings of Israel and Judah, a summary of the kings of the Northern Kingdom of Israel, and studies of Solomon, Jeroboam and Josiah.

There are also pages describing some of the historical events of the period, including the Syro-Ephraimite War, and the Assyrian invasion of Judah in 701 BC.

Dates of the Kings of Judah and Israel
King Solomon
The Kings of Israel
King Jeroboam I of Israel
The Syro-Ephraimite War (735 BC)
Sennacherib's Invasion of Judah (701 BC)
King Josiah of Judah
Differences Between Kings and Chronicles
Chronology of the post-exilic period

Studies in the Old Testament Prophets (Is - Mal)

Articles containing studies and helpful information for the OT prophets. These include a page looking at the way the prophets look ahead into their future, a page looking at the question of whether Satan is a fallen angel, and a page studying the seventy weeks of Daniel.

There are also a series of pages giving a commentary through the text of two of the books:
Isaiah (13 pages) and Daniel (10 pages).

Prophets and the Future
The Call of Jeremiah (Jer 1)
The Fall of Satan? (Is 14, Ezek 28)
Daniel Commentary (10 pages)
Isaiah Commentary (13 pages)
Formation of the Book of Jeremiah

Daniel's Seventy Weeks (Dan 9:24-27)

New Testament Studies

A series of articles covering more general topics for NT studies. These include a list of the people in the NT confirmed by archaeology.

More theological topics include the Kingdom of God and the Coming of Christ.

NT People Confirmed by Archaeology
The Kingdom of God / Heaven
Parousia (Coming of Christ)
The Importance of Paradox

Studies in the Four Gospels (Matt - John)

A series of articles covering various studies in the four gospels. These include a list of the unique passages in each of the Synoptic Gospels and helpful information about the parables and how to interpret them.

Some articles look at the life and ministry of Jesus, including his genealogy, birth narratives, transfiguration, the triumphal entry into Jerusalem, and the seating arrangements at the Last Supper.

More theological topics include the teaching about the Holy Spirit as the Paraclete and whether John the Baptist fulfilled the predictions of the coming of Elijah.

Unique Passages in the Synoptic Gospels
The SynopticProblem
Genealogy of Jesus (Matt 1)
Birth Narratives of Jesus
Understanding the Parables
Peter's Confession and the Transfiguration
Was John the Baptist Elijah?
The Triumphal Entry
The Olivet Discourse (Mark 13)
Important themes in John's Gospel
John's Gospel Prologue (John 1)
Jesus Fulfilling Jewish Festivals
Reclining at Table at the Last Supper
The Holy Spirit as the Paraclete

Studies in the Book of Acts and the New Testament Letters

A series of articles covering various studies in the Book of Acts and the Letters, including Paul's letters. These include a page studying the messages given by the apostles in the Book of Acts, and the information about the financial collection that Paul made during his third missionary journey. More theological topics include Paul's teaching on Jesus as the last Adam, and descriptions of the church such as the body of Christ and the temple, as well as a look at redemption and the issue of fallen angels.

There are a series of pages giving a commentary through the text of five of the books:
Romans (7 pages), 1 Corinthians (7 pages), Galatians (3 pages), Philemon (1 page) and Hebrews (7 pages)

Apostolic Messages in the Book of Acts
Paul and His Apostleship
Collection for the Saints
The Church Described as a Temple
Church as the Body of Christ
Jesus as the Last Adam
Food Offered to Idols
Paul's Teaching on Headcoverings
Who are the Fallen Angels
The Meaning of Redemption
What is the Church?
Paul and the Greek Games

Romans Commentary (7 pages)

1 Corinthians Commentary (7 pages)

Galatians Commentary (3 pages)

Philemon Commentary (1 page)

Hebrews Commentary (7 pages)

Studies in the Book of Revelation

Articles containing studies and helpful information for the study of the Book of Revelation and topics concerning Eschatology (the study of end-times).

These include a description of the structure of the book, a comparison and contrast between the good and evil characters in the book and a list of the many allusions to the OT. For the seven churches, there is a page which gives links to their location on Google maps.

There is a page studying the important theme of Jesus as the Lamb, which forms the central theological truth of the book. There are pages looking at the major views of the Millennium, as well as the rapture and tribulation, as well as a list of dates of the second coming that have been mistakenly predicted through history.

There is also a series of ten pages giving a detailed commentry through the text of the Book of Revelation.

Introduction to the Book of Revelation
Characters Introduced in the Book
Structure of Revelation
List of Allusions to OT
The Description of Jesus as the Lamb
Virtual Seven Churches of Revelation
The Nero Redivius Myth
The Millennium (1000 years)
The Rapture and the Tribulation
Different Approaches to Revelation
Predicted Dates of the Second Coming

Revelation Commentary (10 pages)

How to do Inductive Bible Study

These are a series of pages giving practical help showing how to study the Bible inductively, by asking a series of simple questions. There are lists of observation and interpretation questions, as well as information about the structure and historical background of biblical books, as well as a list of the different types of figures of speech used in the Bible. There is also a page giving helpful tips on how to apply the Scriptures personally.

How to Study the Bible Inductively
I. The Inductive Study Method
II. Observation Questions
III. Interpretation Questions
IV. Structure of Books
V. Determining the Historical background
VI. Identifying Figures of Speech
VII. Personal Application
VIII. Text Layout

Types of Literature in the Bible

These are a series of pages giving practical help showing how to study each of the different types of book in the Bible by appreciating the type of literature being used. These include historical narrative, law, wisdom, prophets, Gospels, Acts, letters and Revelation.

It is most important that when reading the Bible we are taking note of the type of literature we are reading. Each type needs to be considered and interpreted differently as they have different purposes.

How to Understand OT Narratives
How to Understand OT Law
Hebrew Poetry
OT Wisdom Literature
Understanding the OT Prophets
The Four Gospels
The Parables of Jesus
The Book of Acts
How to Understand the NT Letters
Studying End Times (Eschatology)
The Book of Revelation

Geography and Archaeology

These are a series of pages giving geographical and archaeological information relevant to the study of the Bible. There is a page where you can search for a particular geographical location and locate it on Google maps, as well as viewing photographs on other sites.

There are also pages with photographs from Ephesus and Corinth.

Search for Geographical Locations
Major Archaeological Sites in Israel
Archaeological Sites in Assyria, Babylon and Persia
Virtual Paul's Missionary Journeys
Virtual Seven Churches of Revelation
Photos of the City of Corinth
Photos of the City of Ephesus

Biblical archaeology in museums around the world

A page with a facility to search for artifacts held in museums around the world which have a connection with the Bible. These give information about each artifact, as well as links to the museum's collection website where available showing high resolution photographs of the artifact.

There is also pages of photographs of important artifacts from the British Museum in London, the Louvre in Paris and the Israel Museum in Jerusalem.

Search Museums for Biblical Archaeology
British Museum Photos
Israel Museum Photos
Paris Louvre Photos

Difficult Theological and Ethical Questions

These are a series of pages looking at some of the more difficult questions of Christian theology, including war, suffering, disappointment and what happens to those who have never heard the Gospel.

Christian Ethics
Never Heard the Gospel
Is there Ever a Just War?
Why Does God Allow Suffering
Handling Disappointment

How to Preach

These are a series of pages giving a practical step-by-step explanation of the process of preparing a message for preaching, and how to lead a small group Bible study.

What is Preaching?
I. Two Approaches to Preaching
II. Study a Passage for Preaching
III. Creating a Message Outline
IV. Making Preaching Relevant
V. Presentation and Public Speaking
VI. Preaching Feedback and Critique
Leading a Small Group Bible Study

Information for SBS staff members

Two pages particularly relevant for people serving as staff on the School of Biblical Studies (SBS) in YWAM. One gives helpful instruction about how to prepare to teach on a book in the SBS. The other gives a list of recommended topics which can be taught about for each book of the Bible.

Teaching on SBS Book Topics for SBS