Search for page by title (auto-completes)
Advanced search
Translate into

The Bible

OT Overview

NT Overview

OT Books

NT Books

OT History

NT History

OT Studies

Pentateuch Studies

History Books Studies

Studies in the Prophets

NT Studies

Studies in the Gospels

Acts and Letters Studies

Revelation Studies

Inductive Study

Types of Literature


Early Church

British Museum


Historical Documents

Life Questions

How to Preach


SBS Staff

Advanced Search
Search for word or phrase within each page
Search by OT book and chapter
Search by NT book and chapter

Israel's Enemies at the Time of the Conquest of the Promised Land

Julian Spriggs M.A.

God promised Abraham that he would be given the land of the Kenites, Kenizzites, Kadmonites, Hittites, Perizzites, Rephaim, Amorites, Canaanites, Girgashites, and the Jebusites (Gen 15:17-21). There are several lists of the peoples Israel will drive out of the land. There is a core of six peoples: Hittites, Perizzites, Ammonites, Hivites, Canaanites, and Jebusites. These six are listed in: Ex 3:8 & 17, 13:5 (omits Perizzites), 23:23, 33:2, 34:11, Deut 20:17, Josh 9:1, 12:8, and Judges 3:5. There is one shorter list of Hittites, Canaanites & Hivites only (Ex 23:28). Some lists add the Girgashites to the normal six: Deut 7:1, Josh 3:10, 24:11, Neh 9:8 (omits Hivites)


When the twelve spies returned to Moses at Kadesh Barnea, their report was that the Amalekites dwell in the land of the Negeb, the Hittites, Jebusites and Amorites dwell in the hill country and the Canaanites dwell by the sea and along the Jordan (Num 13:29).

During the conquest of the north, Jabin of Hazor called the following to fight Israel: the Canaanites in the east and the west, the Amorites, Hittites, Perizzites and Jebusites in the hill country, and the Hivites under Mt. Hermon in land of Mizpah (Josh 11:3)

The Kenites

The Kenites are also known as Midianites (Num 10:29-30). Their name means "Smith". The Midianites were descendants of Midan, the son of Abraham through Keturah (Gen 25:2). They came from the area south-east of the Gulf of Aqabah, where there were copper mines. Moses became the son-in-law of Reuel (Ex 2:18), also known as Jethro (Ex 3:1), the Midianite. Moses invited Hobab, the son of Reuel, to join the Israelites and teach them how to live in the wilderness (Num 10:29). His descendants are mentioned in Judges 1:16.

Sisera was murdered by Jael, the wife of Heber the Kenite, who drove a tent peg into his head (Judges 4:11, 5:24). Heber had separated himself from the Kenites and had linked with the Canaanite king Jabin, who oppressed the Israelites while Deborah was judge. Balaam mentions the Kenites (Num 24:21-22), predicting that Asshur will take them captive. Asshur could mean the Assyrians or the Amorites.

Saul spared the Kenites during his campaign against the Amalekites, warning them to depart (1 Sam 15:6). David made Achish of the Philistines think he had raided them (1 Sam 27:10) and later sent them spoil from the Amalekites (1 Sam 30:29). The Rechabites who were commended by Jeremiah (Jer 35) and helped Nehemiah rebuild the walls (Neh 3:14) were descendants of the Kenites (1 Chr 2:55).

The Kenizzites and the Kadmonites

They are not mentioned after Gen 15. By the time of Moses, the Kenites, Kenizzites and Kadmonites are not mentioned on the list of nations in the land. Caleb was the son of Jephunneh the Kenizzite (Num 32:12).

Family tree

From the Table of the Nations (Gen 10:15) and 1 Chr 1:11, the ancestry of the enemies are given:
The sons of Ham - Cush, Egypt and Canaan,
the sons of Egypt - Casluhim and Philistines,
and the sons of Canaan - Jebusites, Amorite, Girgashites, and Hivites.
One of the sons of Esau, called Eliphaz, had a concubine Timna who bore Amalek, and ancestor of the Amalekites (Gen 36:12).

The other peoples are mentioned as Joshua was about to enter the land. They can be divided into four groups: Hittites, Perizzites, Rephaim, Canaanites.

The Hittites

The Hittites came from a powerful people that lived in the region of modern day Turkey, having entered Asia Minor around 2000 BC, then spreading out and dominating northern Syria. Egypt was their main rival, who dominated southern Syria. Their way of controlling northern Syria was by controlling the small but important city-states with a combination of military force and good diplomacy. They created a vast network of vassal states bound by the Hittite suzerain treaties, a kind of benevolent feudalism. Each vassal king was given a free hand in matters of internal rule and the guaranteed protection of his dynasty against usurpers. He in turn gave up the right to have an independent foreign policy and pledged an annual amount of tribute to the Hittite capital.

The stipulations section of the treaty included:
a) No foreign alliances outside of Hittite orbit
b) No hostility against another vassal of the Hittites
c) Obligation to answer any call to arms issued by the Hittite Suzerain
d) Obligation to suppress any vicious rumours about the Hittite crown or secret plots to rebel
e) Prohibition against granting asylum to refugees from Hittite lands
f) Obligation to extradite all fugitives to the Hittites,
g) Obligation to appear personally at least once a year at Hittite court with tribute.

Groups of Hittites lived in the hill country of the promised land (Num 13:29). They worshipped up to a thousand different gods. The Hittites were with Israel throughout the OT period. Abraham bought the place of Sarah's burial from Ephron the Hittite who was living in Hebron (Gen 23). This became the burial site of the patriarchs: Abraham and Sarah, Isaac and Rebekah, Jacob and wives (Gen 49:29). Esau married two wives, one of whom was a daughter of a Hittite (Gen 26:34, 36:2).

Their influence was especially great around 1450-1200 BC. God promises the Hittites into the hands of Israel but because of Israel forsaking the Lord they were left in the land (Judges 3:5). David had Ahimelech the Hittite in his band of outlaws (1 Sam 26:6). David sinned with the wife of Uriah the Hittite (1 Sam 11-12), Uriah was one of David's mighty men (1 Chr 11:4). Solomon used the Hittites for forced labour (1 Kg 9:20-22) and exported Egyptian chariots to the Hittites and Syrians, north of Israel (1 Kg 10:29). He also had Hittite wives (1 Kg 11:1). The Hittites were still a force in days of Jehoram and Elisha (850 BC) (2 Kg 7:6). The Hittite empire fell to the "sea people" in 1190 B.C.

The Perizzites

The Perizzites and Canaanites are frequently mentioned together. It may have been a general name for hill dwellers. They are lived with the Canaanites near Bethel and Ai (Gen 13:7) and they dwelt with the Jebusites in the hill country (Josh 11:3). The tribe of Joseph was told to take the land of the Rephaim and Perizzites (Josh 17:15). Judah and Simeon attacked and defeated the Perizzites and Canaanites to take the territory of Judah, capturing King Adonibezek and cutting off his thumbs and toes. They were among those still left in the land in Ezra's time (Ezra 9:1).

The Rephaim or Anakim - (Heb. giants)

This people were a tribe of giants descended from Anak, who lived in the land. Their height was legendary, the Moabites and Ammonites lived in a land previously occupied by the Emin, who were as great and tall as the Anakim (Deut 2:11). King Og of Bashan was the last of the remnant of the Rephaim. He slept in a bedstead of iron, nine cubits long and 4 cubits wide (Deut 3:11, Josh 12:4, 13:12). The land of Bashan was also known as the land of the Rephaim. The town of Hebron was also known as Kiriath-arba, Arba was the father of Anak (Josh 15:14, 21:11). The valley of Rephaim formed the boundary between Judah and Benjamin (Josh 15:8, 18:16), where later David fought the Philistines (2 Sam 5:18,22).

The Rephaim were subdued by Chedorlaomer and the four kings from the east (Gen 14:5). The twelve spies reported seeing three descendants of Anak (or Nephilim). They felt as grasshoppers before them (Num 13:22,33, Deut 1:28). Moses warns the Israelites that they are about to enter the land of a people great and tall, the sons of the Anakim, reminding them of a saying, "Who can stand against the sons of Anak?" (Deut 9:2)

Joshua wiped the Anakim out of the hill country, but some escaped to the Philistines (Josh 11:21-22). Caleb drove out the three sons of Anak (Josh 15:14, Judges 1:20). The tribe appears to have lost its separate existence among the Philistines. Perhaps Goliath was a descendent of the Anakim, now living with the Philistines (6 cubits = 9 ft). Jeremiah's prophecy against the Philistines addresses them as the remnant of the Anakim (Jer 47:5)

The Canaanites

The term Canaanites was given to the various groups that lived in the promised land (Gen 10:15). They are descendants of Noah through Ham. Canaan was cursed to be a slave of his brothers by Noah after the incident when Noah was drunk and lay naked (Gen 9:25). They lived in various places among the other inhabitants of the land, especially on the low land (Num 13:29).

The following are descendants of Canaan (Gen 10:17, 1 Chr 1:15):

The Hivites

A peaceable business people, probably nomadic. They dwelt on Mount Lebanon and other northern mountains (Josh 11:3, Judges 3:3). David's census found them near Tyre and Sidon (2 Sam 24:7). Dinah, the daughter of Jacob and Leah was raped by Shechem the Hivite. The reprisals caused trouble between Jacob and the local inhabitants (Gen 34). Esau married two wives, one of whom was a daughter of a Hivite (Gen 36:2). The men of Gibeon, who deceived Israel into thinking they came from far away, were Hivites (Josh 9:7, 11:19). Solomon used them as forced labour (1 Kg 9:20, 2 Chr 8:7).

The Girgashites

Little is known about them, but tradition says they fled to Africa.


It is important not to confuse these people with the Ammonites. Amorites was a general name for peoples from east of Dead Sea. The land of the Amorites was a general term for the promised land (eg. Amos 2:9-10). Gen 15:16 says that the iniquity of the Amorites was not complete (a general term). They originally came from Mesopotamia around 1875-1425 BC. At one time, the Amorites had a large kingdom that included Assyria and Babylonia. Much of their kingdom was on the east of Jordan. In 1380-1345 the Amorite king became a vassal of the Hittites. In 1792 BC Hammurabi, an Amorite, was king of Babylonia.

Abraham made an alliance with them against the four kings of the east (Gen 14:7,13). The spies reported that Amorites lived in the hill country (Num 13:29). The Israelites defeated Sihon, king of the Amorites and Og, king of Bashan, also described as an Amorite (Num 21:21-30). This victory was remembered as a significant event in Israel's history (Judges 11:19-23, Ps 135:11, 136:19). The half tribe of Manasseh was given the land of the Amorites, from the valley of the Arnon to Mount Hermon (Num 32:33).

Amorites were resident in Ai (Josh 7:7) and the hill country (Josh 11:3). During the conquest of the south, five kings of the Amorites (Jerusalem, Hebron, Jarmuth, Lachish and Eglon) made war against Gibeon (Hivites) because they had made a covenant with Israel. The Lord killed them with hailstones (Josh 10:5). In the days of Samuel, there was peace between Israel and the Amorites (1 Sam 7:14). Solomon used them as forced labour (1 Kg 9:20, 2 Chr 8:7).

Israel was warned not to worship the gods of the Amorites (Judges 6:10). Amorites were used as an example of idolatry, Ahab's idolatry was like the Amorites (1 Kg 21:26) and Manasseh was more wicked than the Amorites (2 Kg 21:10).

The Jebusites

This group, among other places, lived in the city of Jerusalem (Josh 15:63). It was a key city, hard to conquer and was never taken until David's day, even though the army of Jerusalem was destroyed in Joshua's time (Josh 10). The Jebusites were not driven out, but dwelt with the people of Judah (Josh 15:63, Judges 1:21). David took the city by getting up the water shaft (2 Sam 5:6-10, 1 Chr 11:4-6). It was from a Jebusite that David purchased the land to build a temple after an angel appeared there after the plague sent as a result of David's census (2 Sam 24:18, 1 Chr 21:15-18). Solomon used Jebusites for forced labour (1 Kg 9:20, 2 Chr 8:7). The spies reported seeing them in the hill country, along with Hittites and Amorites (Num 13:29).

Other significant enemies:

The Philistines

It is thought that the Philistines came from the island of Crete after the collapse of the Minoan Empire. In Egyptian inscriptions, they were called the 'sea peoples'. They failed to invade Egypt, so they settled along the coast of Palestine from Joppa to Gaza. Their five leading cities were Ekron, Ashdod, Ashkelon, Gath and Gaza. The Philistines had a more advanced material civilisation than the Israelites and were able to produce tools and implements made of iron. The Israelites went down to the Philistines to sharpen their farm implements (1 Sam 13:19).

Jer 47:4 connects the Philistines and Caphtor in Hebrew parallelism. The Caphtorim came from Caphtor and settled on the sea coast (Deut 2:23). Likewise in Zeph 2:5 the Philistines are connected to the Cerethites, who are thought to come from Crete or that area. Pictures of their armour, especially their distinctive feathered head-dress is found on Egyptian reliefs. The name Palestine is derived from Philistia, the land of the Philistines.

The Philistines were a group of people in the promised land that Joshua never conquered (Josh 13:2). They became one of the main enemies of Israel with about 270 references in the Bible. Abraham dwelt in the land of the Philistines (Gen 21:34). Abimelech was the king of the Philistines (Gen 26:1). Both Abraham and Isaac in turn made a covenant with him. They were a constant problem to Israel.

God used the Philistines, among others, to discipline the people of Israel. Just before Eli died, they captured the ark and God retrieved it by divine judgment (1 Sam 5-6). Saul had some victories against them, but they finally beat Saul at the Battle of Mount Gilboa, when Saul killed himself rather than be humiliated by the Philistines (1 Sam 31). In David's day they were totally subdued. Not much is heard of them after that time, apart from a prophecy against them in Zechariah ch 9. Pompey incorporated them into the province of Syria in 62 BC.

The Amalekites

The Amalekites were a nomadic people from the Sinai and Negeb area. Amalek was the grandson of Esau (Gen 36:12, 1 Chr 1:36). The mention of the land of the Amalekites in Gen 14:7 is most probably a later editorial addition, possibly by Moses or Ezra.

The first battle after the exodus was against the Amalekites at Rephidim in Sinai (Ex 17). As long as Aaron and Hur held up Moses' hands Israel were victorious. The Lord promised to utterly wipe out Amalek (Ex 17:14). This was a major defeat, as no archaeological evidence for the Amalekites has been found after this date.

The twelve spies reported finding Amalekites in the Negeb (Num 13:29). When some Israelites disobeyed Moses and enter the land, they were defeated by Amalekites and Canaanites at Hormah (Num 14:39-45). Balaam prophesied that Amalek, the first of the nations (origin or status?) will come to destruction (Num 24:20).

King Eglon of Moab gathered Ammonites and Amalekites to defeat and oppress Israel, until judge Ehud delivered Israel by assassinating Eglon, while he was relieving himself (Judges 3:13). The Amalekites later raided Israel with the Midianites, taking their flocks and grain, like locusts, until God raised up Gideon as the deliverer (Judges 6:3).

The Amalekites caused king Saul's final downfall when he disobeyed God by failing to kill them all, and sparing king Agag (1 Sam 15). David later raided Amalekites while he lived with king Achish in the land of the Philistines (1 Sam 27) - obviously Saul spared more than just their king.

In the story of Esther, Haman, the bad guy and enemy of Mordecai, is described as an Agagite, possibly a descendent of Agag (Esther 3:1). Saul's disobedience possibly almost lead to a tragedy 600 years later. After Amalekite raids on Ziglag, David pursued them, killing all but 400 and recovering his wives (1 Sam 30). An Amalekite brought David news of Saul's death, saying he had killed Saul himself. David killed him for slaying the Lord's anointed (2 Sam 1:1). In the days of Hezekiah, Simeon destroyed the remnant of the Amalekites in the stronghold of Mt. Seir (Edom) (1 Chr 4:43).

The Ammonites and Moabites

These are descendants of Lot, by his daughters (Gen 19:37).


These are the descendants of Esau


God gave Israel a warning that if they did not destroy the people in the land they would be “pricks in your eyes and thorns in your side” (Num 33:50-56). Joshua led the people over the Jordan and destroyed many cities and peoples (Josh 12). Joshua subdued the land, but not all the people died in it (Josh 11:21-23). Josh 13:1-7 gives us a list of land still to be possessed. Joshua divided up the land and it was the task of the tribes to possess it (Josh 23:4-13). In Judges the tribes seek to drive them out. Judah and the house of Joseph has success, but others fail (Judg 1:27-36). This was because the people did not break down the altars (Judg 2:2) and served Baal (Judg 2:11ff). Judg 3:3f gives us a list of nations left in the land. Judg 3:5-6 is one of the saddest verses as the promise was not fulfilled. The land was not totally theirs. They co-habited it with the various Canaanite, Hittite, and Perizzite groups. The promise of Num 33:55-56 was fulfilled.

The type of sins the Canaanites were involved in are mentioned in the Bible. This gives us an idea of the type of life in Canaan before Israel got there. Deut 9:4-5 makes it clear the nations were involved in gross wickedness. God's judgment was pending for many years (Gen 15:14-16). Lev 18:1ff give us a list of the horrors of everyday practice in the land (Lev 18:24). Sexual sins, child sacrifice, homosexuality, and perversion with animals are listed. Deut 18:9-14 add witchcraft and the occult to the list.

The Bible

Pages which look at issues relevant to the whole Bible, such as the Canon of Scripture, as well as doctrinal and theological issues. There are also pages about the Apocrypha, Pseudepigrapha and 'lost books' of the Old Testament.

Also included are lists of the quotations of the OT in the NT, and passages of the OT quoted in the NT.

Why These 66 Books?
Books in the Hebrew Scriptures
Quotations in NT From OT
OT Passages Quoted in NT
History of the English Bible
Twelve Books of the Apocrypha
The Pseudepigrapha - False Writings
Lost Books Referenced in OT

Old Testament Overview

This is a series of six pages which give a historical overview through the Old Testament and the inter-testamental period, showing where each OT book fits into the history of Israel.

OT 1: Creation and Patriarchs
OT 2: Exodus and Wilderness
OT 3: Conquest and Monarchy
OT 4: Divided kingdom and Exile
OT 5: Return from Exile
OT 6: 400 Silent Years

New Testament Overview

This is a series of five pages which give a historical overview through the New Testament, focusing on the Ministry of Jesus, Paul's missionary journeys, and the later first century. Again, it shows where each book of the NT fits into the history of the first century.

NT 1: Life and Ministry of Jesus
NT 2: Birth of the Church
NT 3: Paul's Missionary Journeys
NT 4: Paul's Imprisonment
NT 5: John and Later NT

Introductions to Old Testament Books

This is an almost complete collection of introductions to each of the books in the Old Testament. Each contains information about the authorship, date, historical setting and main themes of the book.

Genesis Exodus Leviticus
Numbers Deuteronomy

Joshua Judges Ruth
1 & 2 Samuel 1 & 2 Kings Chronicles
Ezra & Nehemiah Esther

Job Psalms Proverbs

Isaiah Jeremiah Lamentations
Ezekiel Daniel

Hosea Joel Amos
Obadiah Jonah Micah
Nahum Habakkuk Zephaniah
Haggai Zechariah Malachi

Introductions to New Testament Books

This is a collection of introductions to each of the 27 books in the New Testament. Each contains information about the authorship, date, historical setting and main themes of the book.

Matthew's Gospel Mark's Gospel Luke's Gospel
John's Gospel

Book of Acts

Romans 1 Corinthians 2 Corinthians
Galatians Ephesians Philippians
Colossians 1 & 2 Thessalonians 1 Timothy
2 Timothy Titus Philemon

Hebrews James 1 Peter
2 Peter 1 John 2 & 3 John


Old Testament History

Information about the different nations surrounding Israel, and other articles concerning Old Testament history and the inter-testamental period.

Canaanite Religion
Israel's Enemies During the Conquest
Syria / Aram
The Assyrian Empire
Babylon and its History
The Persian Empire
The Greek Empire
The 400 Silent Years
The Ptolemies and Seleucids
Antiochus IV - Epiphanes

Old Testament Studies

A series of articles covering more general topics for OT studies. These include a list of the people named in the OT and confirmed by archaeology. There are also pages to convert the different units of measure in the OT, such as the talent, cubit and ephah into modern units.

More theological topics include warfare in the ancient world, the Holy Spirit in the OT, and types of Jesus in the OT.

OT People Confirmed by Archaeology
The Jewish Calendar
The Importance of Paradox
Talent Converter (weights)
Cubit Converter (lengths)
OT People Search
Ephah Converter (volumes)
Holy War in the Ancient World
The Holy Spirit in the OT
Types of Jesus in the OT

Studies in the Pentateuch (Gen - Deut)

A series of articles covering studies in the five books of Moses. Studies in the Book of Genesis look at the historical nature of the early chapters of Genesis, the Tower of Babel and the Table of the Nations.

There are also pages about covenants, the sacrifices and offerings, the Jewish festivals and the tabernacle, as well as the issue of tithing.

Are chapters 1-11 of Genesis historical?
Chronology of the Flood
Genealogies of the Patriarchs
Table of the Nations (Gen 10)
Tower of Babel (Gen 11:1-9)

Authorship of the Pentateuch
Chronology of the Wilderness Years
Names of God in the OT
Covenants in the OT
The Ten Commandments
The Tabernacle and its Theology
Sacrifices and Offerings
The Jewish Festivals
Balaam and Balak
Highlights from Deuteronomy
Overview of Deuteronomy

Studies in the Old Testament History Books (Josh - Esther)

Articles containing studies and helpful information for the history books. These include a list of the dates of the kings of Israel and Judah, a summary of the kings of the Northern Kingdom of Israel, and studies of Solomon, Jeroboam and Josiah.

There are also pages describing some of the historical events of the period, including the Syro-Ephraimite War, and the Assyrian invasion of Judah in 701 BC.

Dates of the Kings of Judah and Israel
King Solomon
The Kings of Israel
King Jeroboam I of Israel
The Syro-Ephraimite War (735 BC)
Sennacherib's Invasion of Judah (701 BC)
King Josiah of Judah
Differences Between Kings and Chronicles
Chronology of the post-exilic period

Studies in the Old Testament Prophets (Is - Mal)

Articles containing studies and helpful information for the OT prophets. These include a page looking at the way the prophets look ahead into their future, a page looking at the question of whether Satan is a fallen angel, and a page studying the seventy weeks of Daniel.

There are also a series of pages giving a commentary through the text of two of the books:
Isaiah (13 pages) and Daniel (10 pages).

Prophets and the Future
The Call of Jeremiah (Jer 1)
The Fall of Satan? (Is 14, Ezek 28)
Daniel Commentary (10 pages)
Isaiah Commentary (13 pages)
Formation of the Book of Jeremiah

Daniel's Seventy Weeks (Dan 9:24-27)

New Testament Studies

A series of articles covering more general topics for NT studies. These include a list of the people in the NT confirmed by archaeology.

More theological topics include the Kingdom of God and the Coming of Christ.

NT People Confirmed by Archaeology
The Kingdom of God / Heaven
Parousia (Coming of Christ)
The Importance of Paradox

Studies in the Four Gospels (Matt - John)

A series of articles covering various studies in the four gospels. These include a list of the unique passages in each of the Synoptic Gospels and helpful information about the parables and how to interpret them.

Some articles look at the life and ministry of Jesus, including his genealogy, birth narratives, transfiguration, the triumphal entry into Jerusalem, and the seating arrangements at the Last Supper.

More theological topics include the teaching about the Holy Spirit as the Paraclete and whether John the Baptist fulfilled the predictions of the coming of Elijah.

Unique Passages in the Synoptic Gospels
The SynopticProblem
Genealogy of Jesus (Matt 1)
Birth Narratives of Jesus
Understanding the Parables
Peter's Confession and the Transfiguration
Was John the Baptist Elijah?
The Triumphal Entry
The Olivet Discourse (Mark 13)
Important themes in John's Gospel
John's Gospel Prologue (John 1)
Jesus Fulfilling Jewish Festivals
Reclining at Table at the Last Supper
The Holy Spirit as the Paraclete

Studies in the Book of Acts and the New Testament Letters

A series of articles covering various studies in the Book of Acts and the Letters, including Paul's letters. These include a page studying the messages given by the apostles in the Book of Acts, and the information about the financial collection that Paul made during his third missionary journey. More theological topics include Paul's teaching on Jesus as the last Adam, and descriptions of the church such as the body of Christ and the temple, as well as a look at redemption and the issue of fallen angels.

There are a series of pages giving a commentary through the text of five of the books:
Romans (7 pages), 1 Corinthians (7 pages), Galatians (3 pages), Philemon (1 page) and Hebrews (7 pages)

Apostolic Messages in the Book of Acts
Paul and His Apostleship
Collection for the Saints
The Church Described as a Temple
Church as the Body of Christ
Jesus as the Last Adam
Food Offered to Idols
Paul's Teaching on Headcoverings
Who are the Fallen Angels
The Meaning of Redemption
What is the Church?
Paul and the Greek Games

Romans Commentary (7 pages)

1 Corinthians Commentary (7 pages)

Galatians Commentary (3 pages)

Philemon Commentary (1 page)

Hebrews Commentary (7 pages)

Studies in the Book of Revelation

Articles containing studies and helpful information for the study of the Book of Revelation and topics concerning Eschatology (the study of end-times).

These include a description of the structure of the book, a comparison and contrast between the good and evil characters in the book and a list of the many allusions to the OT. For the seven churches, there is a page which gives links to their location on Google maps.

There is a page studying the important theme of Jesus as the Lamb, which forms the central theological truth of the book. There are pages looking at the major views of the Millennium, as well as the rapture and tribulation, as well as a list of dates of the second coming that have been mistakenly predicted through history.

There is also a series of ten pages giving a detailed commentry through the text of the Book of Revelation.

Introduction to the Book of Revelation
Characters Introduced in the Book
Structure of Revelation
List of Allusions to OT
The Description of Jesus as the Lamb
Virtual Seven Churches of Revelation
The Nero Redivius Myth
The Millennium (1000 years)
The Rapture and the Tribulation
Different Approaches to Revelation
Predicted Dates of the Second Coming

Revelation Commentary (10 pages)

How to do Inductive Bible Study

These are a series of pages giving practical help showing how to study the Bible inductively, by asking a series of simple questions. There are lists of observation and interpretation questions, as well as information about the structure and historical background of biblical books, as well as a list of the different types of figures of speech used in the Bible. There is also a page giving helpful tips on how to apply the Scriptures personally.

How to Study the Bible Inductively
I. The Inductive Study Method
II. Observation Questions
III. Interpretation Questions
IV. Structure of Books
V. Determining the Historical background
VI. Identifying Figures of Speech
VII. Personal Application
VIII. Text Layout

Types of Literature in the Bible

These are a series of pages giving practical help showing how to study each of the different types of book in the Bible by appreciating the type of literature being used. These include historical narrative, law, wisdom, prophets, Gospels, Acts, letters and Revelation.

It is most important that when reading the Bible we are taking note of the type of literature we are reading. Each type needs to be considered and interpreted differently as they have different purposes.

How to Understand OT Narratives
How to Understand OT Law
Hebrew Poetry
OT Wisdom Literature
Understanding the OT Prophets
The Four Gospels
The Parables of Jesus
The Book of Acts
How to Understand the NT Letters
Studying End Times (Eschatology)
The Book of Revelation

Geography and Archaeology

These are a series of pages giving geographical and archaeological information relevant to the study of the Bible. There is a page where you can search for a particular geographical location and locate it on Google maps, as well as viewing photographs on other sites.

There are also pages with photographs from Ephesus and Corinth.

Search for Geographical Locations
Major Archaeological Sites in Israel
Archaeological Sites in Assyria, Babylon and Persia
Virtual Paul's Missionary Journeys
Virtual Seven Churches of Revelation
Photos of the City of Corinth
Photos of the City of Ephesus

Biblical Archaeology in Museums around the world

A page with a facility to search for artifacts held in museums around the world which have a connection with the Bible. These give information about each artifact, as well as links to the museum's collection website where available showing high resolution photographs of the artifact.

There is also page of photographs from the Israel Museum in Jerusalem of important artifacts.

Search Museums for Biblical Archaeology
Israel Museum Photos

Difficult Theological and Ethical Questions

These are a series of pages looking at some of the more difficult questions of Christian theology, including war, suffering, disappointment and what happens to those who have never heard the Gospel.

Christian Ethics
Never Heard the Gospel
Is there Ever a Just War?
Why Does God Allow Suffering
Handling Disappointment

How to Preach

These are a series of pages giving a practical step-by-step explanation of the process of preparing a message for preaching, and how to lead a small group Bible study.

What is Preaching?
I. Two Approaches to Preaching
II. Study a Passage for Preaching
III. Creating a Message Outline
IV. Making Preaching Relevant
V. Presentation and Public Speaking
VI. Preaching Feedback and Critique
Leading a Small Group Bible Study

Information for SBS staff members

Two pages particularly relevant for people serving as staff on the School of Biblical Studies (SBS) in YWAM. One gives helpful instruction about how to prepare to teach on a book in the SBS. The other gives a list of recommended topics which can be taught about for each book of the Bible.

Teaching on SBS Book Topics for SBS