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Introduction to 1 & 2 Kings

Julian Spriggs M.A.

Related articles

How to interpret OT Narratives Covenants in the OT
Canaanite religion Israel's enemies
Holy War? Names of God in the OT
Dates of the reigns of kings Syria / Aram
The Syro-Ephraimite War Sennacherib's Invasion of Judah - 701 BC
The Assyrian empire The Babylonian empire
Differences between Kings and Chronicles King Solomon
Kings of Israel (Northern Kingdom) King Jeroboam I
King Josiah

Title of book

In the Hebrew Scriptures the title is simply 'Kings'. As with Samuel and Chronicles, it was written as a single unit and divided at the time of the translation of the Septuagint (LXX), probably because the Greek took up more space than the Hebrew without vowels, so it would no longer fit on a single scroll. In the Hebrew canon it follows Joshua, Judges and Samuel in the group called 'The Former Prophets', preceding Isaiah to Malachi, which are called 'The Latter Prophets'. The title in the Latin Vulgate was 3 & 4 Kingdoms, with Samuel being 1 & 2 Kingdoms.

Date and author

Some have suggested that references to 'this day' points to the temple still standing, (1 Kg 8:8, 9:21, 12:19, 2 Kg 8:22, 16:6). There are also references to the exile before it happened (2 Kg 13:23). The last historical event is the release of Jehoiachin, which happened in 561 BC. The tradition in the Talmud suggests that Jeremiah was the author. If Jeremiah was the author, then an editor probably added the final part of the book.

Sources of information

The material in the books of Kings was selected from several historical documents, which are now lost. Three sources are mentioned by name: The first is 'The Book of the Acts of Solomon' (1 Kg 11:41), which probably contained extracts from the temple and court archives, biographical material and possibly the treaty between Solomon and Hiram of Tyre.

The second is 'The Book of the Annals of the Kings of Israel' (1 Kg 14:19, 15:31). This appears to cover events from the reign of Jeroboam I to the reign of Pekah, up to about 725 BC. It is referred to eighteen times. Annals, or Chronicles, are records of current events, the official record of all the significant political events during a king's reign, which were kept for safety in the state archives. These chronicles are not the same as the Biblical books of 1 and 2 Chronicles, which were written much later.

The third is 'The Book of the Annals of the Kings of Judah' (1 Kg 14:29, 15:7), which appears to cover events from the time of Rehoboam to the reign of Jehoiakim, up to about 590 BC. It is referred to fifteen times. They were the court records kept in the royal archives in Jerusalem. It contains no reference to queen Athaliah, who usurped the throne for seven years.

Other unnamed sources were probably also used, probably including court records of the reign of David, oral or written records of the ministry of Elijah and Elisha and the other prophets mentioned in Kings.


The books of 1 and 2 Kings are not primarily history books, as they were called 'The Former Prophets' in the Hebrew canon. They show God's dealing with His people as He works His purpose out through the history of salvation. They describe God dealing with His people on the basis of His covenants, giving an account of the monarchy from a theological perspective. The books of the former prophets, from Joshua to Kings, show how the principles declared in Deuteronomy are worked out in Israel's history, so are often referred to as 'D-history'. When a godly king was on the throne, the nation experienced the blessings contained in Deuteronomy. But when the king was ungodly and practised idolatry, then the curses of Deuteronomy came into effect, ultimately leading to the exile of both kingdoms.

The two books review the history which led up the exile in Babylon and explain why the exile happened, showing that there was ample reason for God to judge both Israel and Judah because of their persistent idolatry and rebellion.

Characteristics of the books

1. After the division of the kingdom, the Book of Kings gives a reign by reign account of the history of Judah and Israel. The reigns are interwoven to give a chronological account. The account begins with Jeroboam I of Israel, followed by the kings of Judah who came to the throne during the reign of Jeroboam, before the account returns to the kings of Israel. This pattern continues until the exile of the northern kingdom of Israel, after which the account focuses exclusively on Judah.

2. Each king is described in a consistent pattern: 'In the nth year of king X of Israel/Judah, Y began to reign in Judah/Israel'. It also gives his age at accession, his mother's name, length of reign, and an assessment of his reign: 'He did what was evil/right in the eyes of the Lord'. Slightly different details are given for the two kingdoms: the name of the king's mother is only mentioned for kings of Judah, and kings of Israel are all shown to 'walk in the sins of Jeroboam'.

3. The book of Kings shows that history is determined by the behaviour of the king, whether or not the king is faithful to God, which in turn affects the people. The king's behaviour is challenged by the words of judgement and salvation from God's prophets.

4. David is considered as the ideal king and is set as the standard for measuring the other kings.

5. God's commitment to the promises to David depends on the king's and the people's obedience to the law.

6. The books of Kings gives a Deuteronomic view of history: Obedience and faithfulness to God lead to blessing, peace and prosperity, while unfaithfulness and idolatry leads to judgement

7. There is severe criticism of idolatrous kings.

8. A strong emphasis on central worship in Jerusalem is given.

Turning points in book

There are three main turning points in the book: The first is when the kingdom was torn from Solomon and given to his servant, and only one tribe left (Judah) (1 Kg 11:11). The second is during the reign of Jeroboam I, when judgement on northern kingdom of Israel is declared (1 Kg 14:15-16). Almost all succeeding northern kings described as following in the ways of Jeroboam (15:30,34...). The third is during the reign of Manasseh, when judgement was declared on the southern kingdom of Judah (2 Kg 21:10-15). Succeeding southern kings are described as following in the ways of Manasseh.

Place of Kings in history of redemption

The books of Kings conclude the historical narrative which starts in Genesis, focusing on the history of Israel and its origins in Egypt until the ending of its political independence by the Babylonians. 1 Kings begins with the golden age of Israel with the united kingdom in all its glory under Solomon, 2 Kings closes with the nation in ruin and the people exiled in Babylon. Israel grew to its greatest geographical extent by the end of David's reign (1 Kg 4:20, 4:24-25), and was reduced to nothing by the end of 2 Kings.

God's dealing with His people in Kings

In the Books of Kings we see God working out His relationship with his people on the basis of the covenants.

The first was the covenant with Abraham, when he was promised the land (Gen 12, 2 Kg 13:23). The second covenant was the one made through Moses at Sinai and repeated in Deuteronomy. The importance of the covenant can be clearly seen all through Solomon's prayer (1 Kg 8:23-53). The book of Kings describes the outworking of the blessings and curses in Deut 28. The account of the exile of Israel,
"In the ninth year of Hoshea the king of Assyria captured Samaria; he carried the Israelites away to Assyria. He placed them in Halah, on the Habor, the river of Gozan, and in the cities of the Medes" (2 Kg 17:6) is based on the curses and warnings in Deuteronomy, "The LORD will scatter you among all peoples, from one end of the earth to the other; and there you shall serve other gods ..." (Deut 28:64).
Deuteronomy looks ahead, almost prophetically to the time of the exile, when the people will ask,
"'Why has the LORD done thus to the land?' 'What caused this great display of anger?' They will conclude, 'It is because they abandoned the covenant of the LORD, the God of their ancestors, which he made with them when he brought them out of Egypt. They turned and served other gods, worshipping them, gods whom they had not known and whom he had not allotted to them; so the anger of the LORD was kindled against the land, bringing on it every curse written in this book. The LORD uprooted them from their land in great anger, fury and great wrath, and cast them into another land, as is now the case." (Deut 29:24-28).

The third is the covenant with David (1 Sam 7), the tale of two houses (1 Kg 11:12,36). 2 Kings ends on a note of hope (2 Kg 25:27-30), when Jehoiachin is preserved as an ancestor of the Messiah.

There is a continuing tension between the unconditional promises made to Abraham and David, and the conditions of the Mosaic covenant. When God tore the kingdom away from Solomon, he declared that he will not do it during Solomon's lifetime, and will not tear away the whole kingdom, for the sake of his servant David (1 Kg 11:13).

Historical value

The compiler(s) and editor(s) of Kings were not writing a consistent continuous historical narrative, but a great ethical and religious treatise. The historical material is there to make the point. Nevertheless, there is no reason to doubt the work as historically accurate with presuppositions that accept the supernatural. Contemporary archaeology continuously affirms the truth of the records.

Emphasis and De-emphasis

The following people and events are given emphasis: establishing Solomon’s Kingdom (1 Kg 1-2), the wisdom of Solomon (ch 3-4), building and dedicating the temple (ch 5-9), Solomon's wealth and greatness (ch 9-10), Solomon's downfall (ch 11), Jeroboam’s rebellion (ch 12-14), Elijah’s ministry and conflict with Ahab (1 Kg 17 - 2 Kg 2), Elisha (2 Kg 2-13), the fall of Israel (ch 17), godly Hezekiah (ch 18-20), evil Manasseh and Amon (ch 21), godly Josiah (ch 22-23), and the exile of Judah (ch 24-25).

The reign of Hezekiah is given three whole chapters (2 Kg 18-20), because he was faithful to God, and godly Josiah given two whole chapters (ch 22-23). The short period of ministry of Elijah and Elisha occupies nearly one third of the whole book.

Other periods are only briefly summarised: six kings (1 Kg 15-16), eight kings (2 Kg 14-16). Historically, Omri was one of the most important rulers of the northern kingdom, so that for many years later Israel was known to the Assyrians as 'The land of Omri'. He built Samaria as the capital city and stood against the Syrians but his evil reign is dismissed in six verses (1 Kg 16:23-28). The reign of Jeroboam II of Israel was considered a golden age similar to the time of David and Solomon, but he is described in only seven verses (2 Kg 14:23-29).

Situation of the Nations around Israel during time of David

The time of the reign of David and Solomon saw Israel at its strongest. This was a time when the surrounding nations were weak, including Assyria. The Hittites had been almost destroyed, Egypt was ruled by weak pharaohs, and Syria was occupied by Israel. This demonstrates the sovereignty of God, because David obeyed the covenant, Israel was able to become the most powerful kingdom in the ancient near east at this time.

Dates of the reigns of each king

Please refer to the article named Dates of Kings for suggested dates for each of the kings of Israel and Judah, as well as an explanation of the problems connected with working out the dates.

The divided Kingdom

Overview of the Kings of the North - the sins of Jeroboam

Jeroboam did not repent (13:33-34), therefore the promise of a sure house (11:38) was not fulfilled, but instead the dynasty was cut off (14:10).

Nadab, son of Jeroboam, did evil as his father (15:25-26).

Baasha was used by God to clear out Jeroboam's house (15:28), but Baasha did not change (15:34). Because Baasha did not change he and his home were judged (16:9-11).

Zimri killed Elah (Baasha's son) and house of Baasha (16:9-11).

Period of civil war between Omri and Tibni. Omri came out strongest (16:15-20).

Omri (16:25) did more evil, following Jeroboam (16:26). Not much information is given about Omri, who was a powerful king according to historical records.

Omri's son Ahab made a political marriage alliance with the Sidonians by marrying Jezebel. She introduced Baal and Asherah worship to Israel, adding to the sin of the calf of Jeroboam (16:31ff).

The ministry of Elijah is introduced. The lack of rain was a direct challenge to Baal, the rain god. People would not listen. Note God's discipline through Hazael of Syria, Jehu of Israel and Elisha the prophet (19:15).

Plenty of information is given to the ministry of the prophets Elijah and Elisha, even when the nation was so far away from God. His goodness is shown to them in victories and battles.

Hazael became king of Syria, a constant threat to Israel (2 Kg 8:11).

Jehu is anointed as king and told to clear out the house of Ahab (2 Kg 9:7-10). He kills Joram (son of Ahab)(9:24), Ahaziah of Judah (9:27), Jezebel (9:33), 70 sons of Ahab (10:1), all the house of Ahab (10:11), all the close friends of Ahab (10:11), all Ahab's priests (10:11), kinsmen of Ahaziah (10:14), and all Baal worshippers (10:18ff)

Jehu went beyond his instructions, only being told to deal with the house of Ahab, not the house of Ahaziah of Judah, as noted in Hosea (Hosea 1:4).

Because of this cleansing of Baal worship, God promised that four generations would sit on the throne (10:30), which is what happened.

Jehu did not turn from the sins of Jeroboam or walk with God with all of his heart (10:29,31). Because of this, God began to discipline him, when Hazael of Syria cut off parts of Israel, all the land east of Jordan (10:32). According to the Black Obelisk, Assyria also made Jehu pay tribute.

Jehoahaz did not change (13:2). Syria was used to discipline them and Jehoahaz sought the Lord, who gave a saviour (probably Adad-nirari of Assyria, who attacked Syria) (13:3). The army was desecrated (13:7), leaving only 50 horsemen, 10 chariots, and 10,000 foot-soldiers .

Jeroboam II (2 Kg 14:23) became one of the strongest kings of the north. God blessed His people and sent Amos, Jonah and Hosea at this time. Baal worship and Ashtaroth worship had returned. Time was running out for Israel. Jeroboam II did not turn from the sins of Jeroboam I (11:24).

Zechariah (15:8), the fourth descendant of Jehu, in fulfilment of God's promise to Jehu, did not repent either (15:9).

This was followed by a period of instability. Shallum ruled for one month and was murdered by Menahem. Menahem ruled for ten years, but did not depart from sins of Jeroboam (15:18). Assyria is mentioned for the first time, king Tiglath-pileser III (15:19). Pekahiah ruled for two years before being murdered by Pekah, and did not turn away from sins of Jeroboam (15:24). Pekah ruled for twenty years, before being murdered by Hoshea, and did not depart from sins of Jeroboam (15:28). Hoshea ruled for nine years before being exiled to Assyria.

Commentary and summary of the Northern Kingdom (17:21-23).

"When he had torn Israel from the house of David, they made Jeroboam the son of Nebat king. And Jeroboam drove Israel from following the Lord and made them commit great sin. The people of Israel walked in all the sins which Jeroboam did, they did not depart from them, until the Lord removed Israel out of his sight, as he had spoken by all his servants the prophets. So Israel was exiled from their own land to Assyria until this day".

Overview of the Southern Kingdom - the problem of High Places

According to the Book of Deuteronomy, there will be one place that the Lord will choose to be worshipped (Deut 12). The reason was to stop idolatry Deut 12:2-4). Before the capture of Jerusalem, there were several different places of worship where the tabernacle was situated, moving between different locations. The original building of the tabernacle was at Sinai (Ex 40), then it was located at Kadesh-Barnea for forty years (Numbers). Once in the land, the tabernacle was set up at Zilgal (Josh 4:19), then at Shechem (Josh 8:30-35?), then at Shiloh (1 Sam 1:9; 3:3), possibly at Nob (1 Sam 22:11?), and at Gibeon (1 Chr 16:39; 21:29), before finally being moved to Jerusalem (2 Sam 6:17).

It is possible that there may have been more than one acceptable high place (1 Kg 3:2-4).

Under Rehoboam, Pharaoh Shishak of Egypt devastated the Southern Kingdom, taking gold from the temple (14:25).

Under Asa there were reforms but the high places not removed (15:14), they still worshipped Yahweh at forbidden places. This opened the door for idolatry.

Jehoshaphat was a good king, but did not remove high places (22:43). He formed a marriage alliance with Ahab of Israel, his son Jehoram married Athaliah, daughter of Ahab and Jezebel, which led to disaster in Judah.

Jehoram walked in the way of the kings of Israel, especially Ahab (2 Kg 8:18). His wife Athaliah introduced Baal worship from Israel into Judah.

Ahaziah, the son of Jehoram and Athaliah walked in the way of the house of Ahab (8:27).

After the death of Ahaziah, his mother Athaliah (the daughter of Ahab and Jezebel) killed the rest of the royal family (the Davidic line) and took the throne herself (11:1). However, Joash (or Jehoash), the infant son of Ahaziah was hidden for 6 years (11:2-3).

Under Jehoash (12:3), Amaziah (14:4) and Uzziah (15:4), the high places not removed (12:3).

Under Ahaz the high places became places of idolatry (16:4).

Hezekiah brought in significant reforms (18:4) and destroyed the high places, both to Yahweh and idols (18:22).

Manasseh rebuilt the high places and worshipped idols (21:3).

There were also great reforms under Josiah, including breaking down the high places (23:5,8,9). Josiah fulfilled the prophecy of (1 Kg 13) and destroyed high places of the north (23:15,19,20). Josiah cleaned the northern religion (17:29ff).

After Josiah was killed in battle, idolatry prevailed during the reigns of the final kings, and the southern kingdom of Judah was exiled (ch 25).

Related articles

How to interpret OT Narratives Covenants in the OT
Canaanite religion Israel's enemies
Holy War? Names of God in the OT
Dates of the reigns of kings Syria / Aram
The Syro-Ephraimite War Sennacherib's Invasion of Judah - 701 BC
The Assyrian empire The Babylonian empire
Differences between Kings and Chronicles King Solomon
Kings of Israel (Northern Kingdom) King Jeroboam I
King Josiah

The Bible

Pages which look at issues relevant to the whole Bible, such as the Canon of Scripture, as well as doctrinal and theological issues. There are also pages about the Apocrypha, Pseudepigrapha and 'lost books' of the Old Testament.

Also included are lists of the quotations of the OT in the NT, and passages of the OT quoted in the NT.

Why These 66 Books?
Books in the Hebrew Scriptures
Quotations in NT From OT
OT Passages Quoted in NT
History of the English Bible
Twelve Books of the Apocrypha
The Pseudepigrapha - False Writings
Lost Books Referenced in OT

Old Testament Overview

This is a series of six pages which give a historical overview through the Old Testament and the inter-testamental period, showing where each OT book fits into the history of Israel.

OT 1: Creation and Patriarchs
OT 2: Exodus and Wilderness
OT 3: Conquest and Monarchy
OT 4: Divided kingdom and Exile
OT 5: Return from Exile
OT 6: 400 Silent Years

New Testament Overview

This is a series of five pages which give a historical overview through the New Testament, focusing on the Ministry of Jesus, Paul's missionary journeys, and the later first century. Again, it shows where each book of the NT fits into the history of the first century.

NT 1: Life and Ministry of Jesus
NT 2: Birth of the Church
NT 3: Paul's Missionary Journeys
NT 4: Paul's Imprisonment
NT 5: John and Later NT

Introductions to Old Testament Books

This is an almost complete collection of introductions to each of the books in the Old Testament. Each contains information about the authorship, date, historical setting and main themes of the book.

Genesis Exodus Leviticus
Numbers Deuteronomy

Joshua Judges Ruth
1 & 2 Samuel 1 & 2 Kings Chronicles
Ezra & Nehemiah Esther

Job Psalms Proverbs

Isaiah Jeremiah Lamentations
Ezekiel Daniel

Hosea Joel Amos
Obadiah Jonah Micah
Nahum Habakkuk Zephaniah
Haggai Zechariah Malachi

Introductions to New Testament Books

This is a collection of introductions to each of the 27 books in the New Testament. Each contains information about the authorship, date, historical setting and main themes of the book.

Matthew's Gospel Mark's Gospel Luke's Gospel
John's Gospel

Book of Acts

Romans 1 Corinthians 2 Corinthians
Galatians Ephesians Philippians
Colossians 1 & 2 Thessalonians 1 Timothy
2 Timothy Titus Philemon

Hebrews James 1 Peter
2 Peter 1 John 2 & 3 John


Old Testament History

Information about the different nations surrounding Israel, and other articles concerning Old Testament history and the inter-testamental period.

Canaanite Religion
Israel's Enemies During the Conquest
Syria / Aram
The Assyrian Empire
Babylon and its History
The Persian Empire
The Greek Empire
The 400 Silent Years
The Ptolemies and Seleucids
Antiochus IV - Epiphanes

Old Testament Studies

A series of articles covering more general topics for OT studies. These include a list of the people named in the OT and confirmed by archaeology. There are also pages to convert the different units of measure in the OT, such as the talent, cubit and ephah into modern units.

More theological topics include warfare in the ancient world, the Holy Spirit in the OT, and types of Jesus in the OT.

OT People Confirmed by Archaeology
The Jewish Calendar
The Importance of Paradox
Talent Converter (weights)
Cubit Converter (lengths)
OT People Search
Ephah Converter (volumes)
Holy War in the Ancient World
The Holy Spirit in the OT
Types of Jesus in the OT

Studies in the Pentateuch (Gen - Deut)

A series of articles covering studies in the five books of Moses. Studies in the Book of Genesis look at the historical nature of the early chapters of Genesis, the Tower of Babel and the Table of the Nations.

There are also pages about covenants, the sacrifices and offerings, the Jewish festivals and the tabernacle, as well as the issue of tithing.

Are chapters 1-11 of Genesis historical?
Chronology of the Flood
Genealogies of the Patriarchs
Table of the Nations (Gen 10)
Tower of Babel (Gen 11:1-9)

Authorship of the Pentateuch
Chronology of the Wilderness Years
Names of God in the OT
Covenants in the OT
The Ten Commandments
The Tabernacle and its Theology
Sacrifices and Offerings
The Jewish Festivals
Balaam and Balak
Highlights from Deuteronomy
Overview of Deuteronomy

Studies in the Old Testament History Books (Josh - Esther)

Articles containing studies and helpful information for the history books. These include a list of the dates of the kings of Israel and Judah, a summary of the kings of the Northern Kingdom of Israel, and studies of Solomon, Jeroboam and Josiah.

There are also pages describing some of the historical events of the period, including the Syro-Ephraimite War, and the Assyrian invasion of Judah in 701 BC.

Dates of the Kings of Judah and Israel
King Solomon
The Kings of Israel
King Jeroboam I of Israel
The Syro-Ephraimite War (735 BC)
Sennacherib's Invasion of Judah (701 BC)
King Josiah of Judah
Differences Between Kings and Chronicles
Chronology of the post-exilic period

Studies in the Old Testament Prophets (Is - Mal)

Articles containing studies and helpful information for the OT prophets. These include a page looking at the way the prophets look ahead into their future, a page looking at the question of whether Satan is a fallen angel, and a page studying the seventy weeks of Daniel.

There are also a series of pages giving a commentary through the text of two of the books:
Isaiah (13 pages) and Daniel (10 pages).

Prophets and the Future
The Call of Jeremiah (Jer 1)
The Fall of Satan? (Is 14, Ezek 28)
Daniel Commentary (10 pages)
Isaiah Commentary (13 pages)
Formation of the Book of Jeremiah

Daniel's Seventy Weeks (Dan 9:24-27)

New Testament Studies

A series of articles covering more general topics for NT studies. These include a list of the people in the NT confirmed by archaeology.

More theological topics include the Kingdom of God and the Coming of Christ.

NT People Confirmed by Archaeology
The Kingdom of God / Heaven
Parousia (Coming of Christ)
The Importance of Paradox

Studies in the Four Gospels (Matt - John)

A series of articles covering various studies in the four gospels. These include a list of the unique passages in each of the Synoptic Gospels and helpful information about the parables and how to interpret them.

Some articles look at the life and ministry of Jesus, including his genealogy, birth narratives, transfiguration, the triumphal entry into Jerusalem, and the seating arrangements at the Last Supper.

More theological topics include the teaching about the Holy Spirit as the Paraclete and whether John the Baptist fulfilled the predictions of the coming of Elijah.

Unique Passages in the Synoptic Gospels
The SynopticProblem
Genealogy of Jesus (Matt 1)
Birth Narratives of Jesus
Understanding the Parables
Peter's Confession and the Transfiguration
Was John the Baptist Elijah?
The Triumphal Entry
The Olivet Discourse (Mark 13)
Important themes in John's Gospel
John's Gospel Prologue (John 1)
Jesus Fulfilling Jewish Festivals
Reclining at Table at the Last Supper
The Holy Spirit as the Paraclete

Studies in the Book of Acts and the New Testament Letters

A series of articles covering various studies in the Book of Acts and the Letters, including Paul's letters. These include a page studying the messages given by the apostles in the Book of Acts, and the information about the financial collection that Paul made during his third missionary journey. More theological topics include Paul's teaching on Jesus as the last Adam, and descriptions of the church such as the body of Christ and the temple, as well as a look at redemption and the issue of fallen angels.

There are a series of pages giving a commentary through the text of five of the books:
Romans (7 pages), 1 Corinthians (7 pages), Galatians (3 pages), Philemon (1 page) and Hebrews (7 pages)

Apostolic Messages in the Book of Acts
Paul and His Apostleship
Collection for the Saints
The Church Described as a Temple
Church as the Body of Christ
Jesus as the Last Adam
Food Offered to Idols
Paul's Teaching on Headcoverings
Who are the Fallen Angels
The Meaning of Redemption
What is the Church?
Paul and the Greek Games

Romans Commentary (7 pages)

1 Corinthians Commentary (7 pages)

Galatians Commentary (3 pages)

Philemon Commentary (1 page)

Hebrews Commentary (7 pages)

Studies in the Book of Revelation

Articles containing studies and helpful information for the study of the Book of Revelation and topics concerning Eschatology (the study of end-times).

These include a description of the structure of the book, a comparison and contrast between the good and evil characters in the book and a list of the many allusions to the OT. For the seven churches, there is a page which gives links to their location on Google maps.

There is a page studying the important theme of Jesus as the Lamb, which forms the central theological truth of the book. There are pages looking at the major views of the Millennium, as well as the rapture and tribulation, as well as a list of dates of the second coming that have been mistakenly predicted through history.

There is also a series of ten pages giving a detailed commentry through the text of the Book of Revelation.

Introduction to the Book of Revelation
Characters Introduced in the Book
Structure of Revelation
List of Allusions to OT
The Description of Jesus as the Lamb
Virtual Seven Churches of Revelation
The Nero Redivius Myth
The Millennium (1000 years)
The Rapture and the Tribulation
Different Approaches to Revelation
Predicted Dates of the Second Coming

Revelation Commentary (10 pages)

How to do Inductive Bible Study

These are a series of pages giving practical help showing how to study the Bible inductively, by asking a series of simple questions. There are lists of observation and interpretation questions, as well as information about the structure and historical background of biblical books, as well as a list of the different types of figures of speech used in the Bible. There is also a page giving helpful tips on how to apply the Scriptures personally.

How to Study the Bible Inductively
I. The Inductive Study Method
II. Observation Questions
III. Interpretation Questions
IV. Structure of Books
V. Determining the Historical background
VI. Identifying Figures of Speech
VII. Personal Application
VIII. Text Layout

Types of Literature in the Bible

These are a series of pages giving practical help showing how to study each of the different types of book in the Bible by appreciating the type of literature being used. These include historical narrative, law, wisdom, prophets, Gospels, Acts, letters and Revelation.

It is most important that when reading the Bible we are taking note of the type of literature we are reading. Each type needs to be considered and interpreted differently as they have different purposes.

How to Understand OT Narratives
How to Understand OT Law
Hebrew Poetry
OT Wisdom Literature
Understanding the OT Prophets
The Four Gospels
The Parables of Jesus
The Book of Acts
How to Understand the NT Letters
Studying End Times (Eschatology)
The Book of Revelation

Geography and Archaeology

These are a series of pages giving geographical and archaeological information relevant to the study of the Bible. There is a page where you can search for a particular geographical location and locate it on Google maps, as well as viewing photographs on other sites.

There are also pages with photographs from Ephesus and Corinth.

Search for Geographical Locations
Major Archaeological Sites in Israel
Archaeological Sites in Assyria, Babylon and Persia
Virtual Paul's Missionary Journeys
Virtual Seven Churches of Revelation
Photos of the City of Corinth
Photos of the City of Ephesus

Biblical Archaeology in Museums around the world

A page with a facility to search for artifacts held in museums around the world which have a connection with the Bible. These give information about each artifact, as well as links to the museum's collection website where available showing high resolution photographs of the artifact.

There is also page of photographs from the Israel Museum in Jerusalem of important artifacts.

Search Museums for Biblical Archaeology
Israel Museum Photos

Difficult Theological and Ethical Questions

These are a series of pages looking at some of the more difficult questions of Christian theology, including war, suffering, disappointment and what happens to those who have never heard the Gospel.

Christian Ethics
Never Heard the Gospel
Is there Ever a Just War?
Why Does God Allow Suffering
Handling Disappointment

How to Preach

These are a series of pages giving a practical step-by-step explanation of the process of preparing a message for preaching, and how to lead a small group Bible study.

What is Preaching?
I. Two Approaches to Preaching
II. Study a Passage for Preaching
III. Creating a Message Outline
IV. Making Preaching Relevant
V. Presentation and Public Speaking
VI. Preaching Feedback and Critique
Leading a Small Group Bible Study

Information for SBS staff members

Two pages particularly relevant for people serving as staff on the School of Biblical Studies (SBS) in YWAM. One gives helpful instruction about how to prepare to teach on a book in the SBS. The other gives a list of recommended topics which can be taught about for each book of the Bible.

Teaching on SBS Book Topics for SBS