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Introduction to Paul's Letter to the Philippians 

Julian Spriggs M.A.

The city of Philippi

Philippi was a strategic city in Macedonia, in northern Greece, originally known as Krenides (Little fountains). It was developed as a gold mining town by, and named after, Philip of Macedonia, the father of Alexander the Great. It came under Roman control in 168 BC, along with the rest of Macedonia. Philippi became a colony under Augustus, as a result of the Battle of Philippi in 42 BC. After Octavian defeated Anthony and Cleopatra at the battle of Actium in 31 BC, Philippi was properly colonised, with its government and customs modelled on Rome.

In Acts 16:12, Luke describes it as the leading city of Macedonia and a Roman Colony. Its praetors (magistrates) and lictors (magistrates' guards) mentioned in Acts 16:35 are typical of a city administered by Rome.

Philippi was situated on The Egnatian Way, the great highway between the east and west. It's port, Neapolis, where Paul landed, was thirteen kilometres south of the city. It was a predominantly Gentile city, with no Jewish synagogue, so the Jews met outside the city by the river (Acts 16:13).

The church at Philippi

Philippi was the first place recorded in Acts in Europe to receive the gospel, where the first church in Europe was founded by Paul on the second missionary journey, around AD 51 (Acts 16). After having been forbidden by the Holy Spirit to enter Asia and Bythinia, Paul had received a vision at Troas of a man from Macedonia, who called, "Come over and help us".

The significant people Paul and Silas met were: Lydia, the Jewish proselyte, a trader in purple cloth from Thyatira in Asia. She met with other ladies for prayer on the Sabbath by the river. The Lord opened her heart to the gospel, and she and her household were baptised. Paul and Silas then stayed at her house. The second was the slave girl with a spirit of divination, which Paul cast out of her. This event resulted in trouble from the authorities and imprisonment. However there is no record of this girl becoming a Christian. The third was the jailor, who was saved when Paul and Silas were miraculously released from prison by an earthquake while they were praising God.

The church probably met at Lydia's house (16:15,40). Other people associated with the church were Epaphroditus, Euodia, Syntyche and Clement. These are all Gentile names, which would indicate a predominately Gentile church.

Philippi may have been the birthplace and home of Luke (another Gentile Christian), where he practised medicine. He probably stayed behind after Paul left and possibly led the thriving church. The "we passages" in Acts, show Luke joining Paul at Troas and remaining in Philippi until Paul returned there on the third missionary journey six years later (Acts 20:5).

The church in Philippi was probably one of the purest new testament churches, a church that Paul was obviously very fond of. It had a reputation for generosity (2 Cor 8:1-5, 11:9)


There is very little doubt that the apostle Paul was the author.

Where was Paul in prison?

There are three different suggestions: the first is in Rome from AD 61-62 (Acts 28), which is the traditional view. The second is Ephesus, during his third missionary journey (AD 54 - 56), and the third is in Caesarea, during Paul’s trials around AD 58 (Acts 23)

From the letter to Philippi, we know that Paul was in prison (1:7,13,17), and that his imprisonment for Christ was known throughout the whole praetorian guard (1:13). His imprisonment gave the brethren greater confidence and more boldness to speak the Word of God (1:14). There were saints in Caesar's household (4:22). Paul is aware that the verdict could go against him (1:20, 2:17), but expects a favourable verdict soon (1:25, 2:23).

From the Book of Acts, we know that Paul was in prison twice: in Caesarea (23:33 - 26:32) and in Rome (28:16-31). 2 Corinthians mentions other imprisonments at earlier times in his ministry (before the third missionary journey) (2 Cor 6:5, 11:23).

Paul did spend two years in prison Caesarea (Acts 21-23), but there is no evidence for the large Christian community with Paul in Caesarea. Also the letter describes a desperate situation, where the possible outcome was death (1:20, 2:17). In Caesarea, the situation was not desperate, Paul still had the opportunity to appeal to the emperor, which he did (Acts 25). He was expecting a long voyage to Rome, not a visit to Philippi.

The advantage of Ephesus (Acts 19), is that it is only a short distance from Ephesus to Philippi, taking between seven and nine days. The several journeys in the letter would be quite possible. The intended visit to Philippi was fulfilled in Acts 20:1-6. Ephesus was the centre of imperial administration and there would be a praetorium there. However, there is no reference to any imprisonment in Ephesus in NT, although this could be one of the many imprisonments listed in 2 Cor 11. Ephesus would still give Paul the opportunity of appeal to emperor, so would not be such a life-threatening situation. The letter makes no mention of the collection for Jerusalem, which Paul was busy with during the visit to Ephesus, as described in 2 Corinthians.

Paul did spend at least two years in prison in Rome (Acts 28). His appeal to the emperor had already been made, the outcome could be death, with no higher appeal possible. An imminent decision over Paul's death was to be made. Paul mentions the Praetorian guard (Phil 1:13), the imperial body guard for the emperor, which would suggest that he was in Rome. However, it could also refer to the official residence for a governor elsewhere in the empire. He also refers to Caesar's Household (4:22), these were all the employees of the imperial administration throughout the empire, but there were particularly many in Rome. There was a large, well-established Christian community in Rome, which would match this letter.

The disadvantage of Rome was the great distance from Philippi to Rome, 800 miles, which would take seven weeks for each journey, and at least five journeys were implied in the book. News had reached Philippi that Paul was in trouble, possibly as Paul left Caesarea for Rome (4:14), gifts were brought from Philippi to Paul by Epaphroditus (4:18), the Philippian church heard that Epaphroditus was ill (2:26), Epaphroditus heard that the Philippians were worried about him (2:26), and finally Epaphroditus travels back to Philippi with the letter (2:26). However, there would be plenty of time in the two years for these five journeys to be made. The description of Paul in Rome in Acts 28 seems much more relaxed than the tense situation of imminent martyrdom in this letter, but very little detail is given in Acts.


If the Roman imprisonment is accepted, the date will be AD 61-62, probably towards the end of the two year imprisonment.

Occasion of the letter

There is no obvious main theme of the letter and very little doctrine. Paul had several personal reasons for writing the letter. Paul is sending Epaphroditus back, who had been sent from Philippi to bring gifts and to assist Paul in prison. Paul makes it clear that he had not failed in his job, but had become seriously ill and almost died, so that Paul was grateful to God for sparing him. The church had been concerned about Epaphroditus, so Paul was eager to send him back. Paul writes this so that the church would accept him back. This is probably the main purpose of the letter.

Paul thanks them for their gift and continued support in prayer and finances since the church was founded. The church had entered a partnership of sharing with Paul (1:5, 4:15). They had sent Paul gifts while he was in Thessalonica (4:16), in Corinth (2 Cor 11:9), and now in Rome.

Paul encourages the Philippians, who are concerned at Paul's continued imprisonment. Probably they remember his miraculous release from the Philippian prison (Acts 16:25), when the jailor, who is a member of the church, was converted. The church were probably praying for a repeat of the miracle. Paul shows them that the gospel is still spreading in spite of being in prison. His imprisonment has served to advance the gospel (1:12). Paul is confident of release and hopes to visit them shortly (1:19, 2:24), and he plans to send Timothy with news of the verdict (2:23).

There area also a few issues in the church that Paul addresses: there is disunity in the church, Euodia and Syntyche are particularly mentioned (4:2). Paul emphasizes unity and humility, giving the example of Jesus (2:2). He also warns about the Judaizers and the circumcision party who are expected to arrive soon (3:2-3). He also warns against perfectionism, calling them to press on, as they are not perfect yet.

The abrupt change at 3:1

Paul appears to be reaching the conclusion of the letter at 3:1, when there is an abrupt change. Some have suggested that this indicates that the letter consists of two or more fragments which have been put together. Up to four fragments have been suggested. However there is no need to assume the existence of several separate letters, Paul was probably dictating the letter (possibly to Timothy (1:1)), when news reached him of the threat from enemies of the gospel coming to Philippi, hence Paul's warning. There were two threats: from outside the church (3:2-4:1) - the Judaizers, and from inside the church (4:2) - Euodia & Syntyche.

The violent language of 3:2 is followed by Paul resuming his very personal tone at 3:4, which is similar to the rest of the letter. Paul's close relationship with the Philippians shows in chapter three, just as much in the first two chapters. The same themes of joy and rejoicing also appear in 4:1,4,10, and the word "commonwealth" used in 1:27, is also used in 3:20. The letter is almost certainly forms a unit, not being written at different times, although the great hymn of Christ (2:6-11) could well be a quotation of a well-known hymn of the time.

The Bible

Pages which look at issues relevant to the whole Bible, such as the Canon of Scripture, as well as doctrinal and theological issues. There are also pages about the Apocrypha, Pseudepigrapha and 'lost books' of the Old Testament.

Also included are lists of the quotations of the OT in the NT, and passages of the OT quoted in the NT.

Why These 66 Books?
Books in the Hebrew Scriptures
Quotations in NT From OT
OT Passages Quoted in NT
History of the English Bible
Twelve Books of the Apocrypha
The Pseudepigrapha - False Writings
Lost Books Referenced in OT

Old Testament Overview

This is a series of six pages which give a historical overview through the Old Testament and the inter-testamental period, showing where each OT book fits into the history of Israel.

OT 1: Creation and Patriarchs
OT 2: Exodus and Wilderness
OT 3: Conquest and Monarchy
OT 4: Divided kingdom and Exile
OT 5: Return from Exile
OT 6: 400 Silent Years

New Testament Overview

This is a series of five pages which give a historical overview through the New Testament, focusing on the Ministry of Jesus, Paul's missionary journeys, and the later first century. Again, it shows where each book of the NT fits into the history of the first century.

NT 1: Life and Ministry of Jesus
NT 2: Birth of the Church
NT 3: Paul's Missionary Journeys
NT 4: Paul's Imprisonment
NT 5: John and Later NT

Introductions to Old Testament Books

This is an almost complete collection of introductions to each of the books in the Old Testament. Each contains information about the authorship, date, historical setting and main themes of the book.

Genesis Exodus Leviticus
Numbers Deuteronomy

Joshua Judges Ruth
1 & 2 Samuel 1 & 2 Kings Chronicles
Ezra & Nehemiah Esther

Job Psalms Proverbs

Isaiah Jeremiah Lamentations
Ezekiel Daniel

Hosea Joel Amos
Obadiah Jonah Micah
Nahum Habakkuk Zephaniah
Haggai Zechariah Malachi

Introductions to New Testament Books

This is a collection of introductions to each of the 27 books in the New Testament. Each contains information about the authorship, date, historical setting and main themes of the book.

Matthew's Gospel Mark's Gospel Luke's Gospel
John's Gospel

Book of Acts

Romans 1 Corinthians 2 Corinthians
Galatians Ephesians Philippians
Colossians 1 & 2 Thessalonians 1 Timothy
2 Timothy Titus Philemon

Hebrews James 1 Peter
2 Peter 1 John 2 & 3 John


Old Testament History

Information about the different nations surrounding Israel, and other articles concerning Old Testament history and the inter-testamental period.

Canaanite Religion
Israel's Enemies During the Conquest
Syria / Aram
The Assyrian Empire
Babylon and its History
The Persian Empire
The Greek Empire
The 400 Silent Years
The Ptolemies and Seleucids
Antiochus IV - Epiphanes

Old Testament Studies

A series of articles covering more general topics for OT studies. These include a list of the people named in the OT and confirmed by archaeology. There are also pages to convert the different units of measure in the OT, such as the talent, cubit and ephah into modern units.

More theological topics include warfare in the ancient world, the Holy Spirit in the OT, and types of Jesus in the OT.

OT People Confirmed by Archaeology
The Jewish Calendar
The Importance of Paradox
Talent Converter (weights)
Cubit Converter (lengths)
OT People Search
Ephah Converter (volumes)
Holy War in the Ancient World
The Holy Spirit in the OT
Types of Jesus in the OT

Studies in the Pentateuch (Gen - Deut)

A series of articles covering studies in the five books of Moses. Studies in the Book of Genesis look at the historical nature of the early chapters of Genesis, the Tower of Babel and the Table of the Nations.

There are also pages about covenants, the sacrifices and offerings, the Jewish festivals and the tabernacle, as well as the issue of tithing.

Are chapters 1-11 of Genesis historical?
Chronology of the Flood
Genealogies of the Patriarchs
Table of the Nations (Gen 10)
Tower of Babel (Gen 11:1-9)

Authorship of the Pentateuch
Chronology of the Wilderness Years
Names of God in the OT
Covenants in the OT
The Ten Commandments
The Tabernacle and its Theology
Sacrifices and Offerings
The Jewish Festivals
Balaam and Balak
Highlights from Deuteronomy
Overview of Deuteronomy

Studies in the Old Testament History Books (Josh - Esther)

Articles containing studies and helpful information for the history books. These include a list of the dates of the kings of Israel and Judah, a summary of the kings of the Northern Kingdom of Israel, and studies of Solomon, Jeroboam and Josiah.

There are also pages describing some of the historical events of the period, including the Syro-Ephraimite War, and the Assyrian invasion of Judah in 701 BC.

Dates of the Kings of Judah and Israel
King Solomon
The Kings of Israel
King Jeroboam I of Israel
The Syro-Ephraimite War (735 BC)
Sennacherib's Invasion of Judah (701 BC)
King Josiah of Judah
Differences Between Kings and Chronicles
Chronology of the post-exilic period

Studies in the Old Testament Prophets (Is - Mal)

Articles containing studies and helpful information for the OT prophets. These include a page looking at the way the prophets look ahead into their future, a page looking at the question of whether Satan is a fallen angel, and a page studying the seventy weeks of Daniel.

There are also a series of pages giving a commentary through the text of two of the books:
Isaiah (13 pages) and Daniel (10 pages).

Prophets and the Future
The Call of Jeremiah (Jer 1)
The Fall of Satan? (Is 14, Ezek 28)
Daniel Commentary (10 pages)
Isaiah Commentary (13 pages)
Formation of the Book of Jeremiah

Daniel's Seventy Weeks (Dan 9:24-27)

New Testament Studies

A series of articles covering more general topics for NT studies. These include a list of the people in the NT confirmed by archaeology.

More theological topics include the Kingdom of God and the Coming of Christ.

NT People Confirmed by Archaeology
The Kingdom of God / Heaven
Parousia (Coming of Christ)
The Importance of Paradox

Studies in the Four Gospels (Matt - John)

A series of articles covering various studies in the four gospels. These include a list of the unique passages in each of the Synoptic Gospels and helpful information about the parables and how to interpret them.

Some articles look at the life and ministry of Jesus, including his genealogy, birth narratives, transfiguration, the triumphal entry into Jerusalem, and the seating arrangements at the Last Supper.

More theological topics include the teaching about the Holy Spirit as the Paraclete and whether John the Baptist fulfilled the predictions of the coming of Elijah.

Unique Passages in the Synoptic Gospels
The SynopticProblem
Genealogy of Jesus (Matt 1)
Birth Narratives of Jesus
Understanding the Parables
Peter's Confession and the Transfiguration
Was John the Baptist Elijah?
The Triumphal Entry
The Olivet Discourse (Mark 13)
Important themes in John's Gospel
John's Gospel Prologue (John 1)
Jesus Fulfilling Jewish Festivals
Reclining at Table at the Last Supper
The Holy Spirit as the Paraclete

Studies in the Book of Acts and the New Testament Letters

A series of articles covering various studies in the Book of Acts and the Letters, including Paul's letters. These include a page studying the messages given by the apostles in the Book of Acts, and the information about the financial collection that Paul made during his third missionary journey. More theological topics include Paul's teaching on Jesus as the last Adam, and descriptions of the church such as the body of Christ and the temple, as well as a look at redemption and the issue of fallen angels.

There are a series of pages giving a commentary through the text of five of the books:
Romans (7 pages), 1 Corinthians (7 pages), Galatians (3 pages), Philemon (1 page) and Hebrews (7 pages)

Apostolic Messages in the Book of Acts
Paul and His Apostleship
Collection for the Saints
The Church Described as a Temple
Church as the Body of Christ
Jesus as the Last Adam
Food Offered to Idols
Paul's Teaching on Headcoverings
Who are the Fallen Angels
The Meaning of Redemption
What is the Church?
Paul and the Greek Games

Romans Commentary (7 pages)

1 Corinthians Commentary (7 pages)

Galatians Commentary (3 pages)

Philemon Commentary (1 page)

Hebrews Commentary (7 pages)

Studies in the Book of Revelation

Articles containing studies and helpful information for the study of the Book of Revelation and topics concerning Eschatology (the study of end-times).

These include a description of the structure of the book, a comparison and contrast between the good and evil characters in the book and a list of the many allusions to the OT. For the seven churches, there is a page which gives links to their location on Google maps.

There is a page studying the important theme of Jesus as the Lamb, which forms the central theological truth of the book. There are pages looking at the major views of the Millennium, as well as the rapture and tribulation, as well as a list of dates of the second coming that have been mistakenly predicted through history.

There is also a series of ten pages giving a detailed commentry through the text of the Book of Revelation.

Introduction to the Book of Revelation
Characters Introduced in the Book
Structure of Revelation
List of Allusions to OT
The Description of Jesus as the Lamb
Virtual Seven Churches of Revelation
The Nero Redivius Myth
The Millennium (1000 years)
The Rapture and the Tribulation
Different Approaches to Revelation
Predicted Dates of the Second Coming

Revelation Commentary (10 pages)

How to do Inductive Bible Study

These are a series of pages giving practical help showing how to study the Bible inductively, by asking a series of simple questions. There are lists of observation and interpretation questions, as well as information about the structure and historical background of biblical books, as well as a list of the different types of figures of speech used in the Bible. There is also a page giving helpful tips on how to apply the Scriptures personally.

How to Study the Bible Inductively
I. The Inductive Study Method
II. Observation Questions
III. Interpretation Questions
IV. Structure of Books
V. Determining the Historical background
VI. Identifying Figures of Speech
VII. Personal Application
VIII. Text Layout

Types of Literature in the Bible

These are a series of pages giving practical help showing how to study each of the different types of book in the Bible by appreciating the type of literature being used. These include historical narrative, law, wisdom, prophets, Gospels, Acts, letters and Revelation.

It is most important that when reading the Bible we are taking note of the type of literature we are reading. Each type needs to be considered and interpreted differently as they have different purposes.

How to Understand OT Narratives
How to Understand OT Law
Hebrew Poetry
OT Wisdom Literature
Understanding the OT Prophets
The Four Gospels
The Parables of Jesus
The Book of Acts
How to Understand the NT Letters
Studying End Times (Eschatology)
The Book of Revelation

Geography and Archaeology

These are a series of pages giving geographical and archaeological information relevant to the study of the Bible. There is a page where you can search for a particular geographical location and locate it on Google maps, as well as viewing photographs on other sites.

There are also pages with photographs from Ephesus and Corinth.

Search for Geographical Locations
Major Archaeological Sites in Israel
Archaeological Sites in Assyria, Babylon and Persia
Virtual Paul's Missionary Journeys
Virtual Seven Churches of Revelation
Photos of the City of Corinth
Photos of the City of Ephesus

Biblical Archaeology in Museums around the world

A page with a facility to search for artifacts held in museums around the world which have a connection with the Bible. These give information about each artifact, as well as links to the museum's collection website where available showing high resolution photographs of the artifact.

There is also page of photographs from the Israel Museum in Jerusalem of important artifacts.

Search Museums for Biblical Archaeology
Israel Museum Photos

Difficult Theological and Ethical Questions

These are a series of pages looking at some of the more difficult questions of Christian theology, including war, suffering, disappointment and what happens to those who have never heard the Gospel.

Christian Ethics
Never Heard the Gospel
Is there Ever a Just War?
Why Does God Allow Suffering
Handling Disappointment

How to Preach

These are a series of pages giving a practical step-by-step explanation of the process of preparing a message for preaching, and how to lead a small group Bible study.

What is Preaching?
I. Two Approaches to Preaching
II. Study a Passage for Preaching
III. Creating a Message Outline
IV. Making Preaching Relevant
V. Presentation and Public Speaking
VI. Preaching Feedback and Critique
Leading a Small Group Bible Study

Information for SBS staff members

Two pages particularly relevant for people serving as staff on the School of Biblical Studies (SBS) in YWAM. One gives helpful instruction about how to prepare to teach on a book in the SBS. The other gives a list of recommended topics which can be taught about for each book of the Bible.

Teaching on SBS Book Topics for SBS