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Slavery in the Roman Empire during the First Century

Julian Spriggs M.A.

A slave was a person owned by another, and considered as part of their owner's property. In Greek thinking, the institution of slavery was taken for granted, and never questioned. They saw a natural order of slaves, who were not normally considered to be human beings. The institution of slavery was dehumanising and degrading.

Jewish slaves had certain privileges and were under legal protection. The Jews prided themselves in the fact that they never treated their slaves with cruelty. Slaves under non-Jewish peoples did not necessarily receive such care or protection.

The Greek civilisation was built on the existence of the institution of slavery. According to a census made in Attica in 309 BC, there were 21,000 male, free citizens of full age, compared with 400,000 slaves. Another estimate gives the total population as 500,000: 90,000 of whom were citizens, 45,000 resident aliens, and 350,000 slaves. Greek slaves were used for industrial purposes and worked in the mines in terrible conditions. Many died as a result of these poor working conditions.

Roman slaves were considered the legal property of their master, but could obtain freedom and legally become a person. They were generally used in houses and farms. A slave could not legally be married or own property, and any children born to a female slave would automatically become the property of her master. The slave labour-force was both a cause, and an effect of the expansion of the Roman Empire. The slave trade financed the army and released men and women from the more mundane tasks of running households and family businesses to attend to the more important matters of state. As slaves grew in number in society, the social structure and the whole economy became dependent on slave labour. Slaves were the machines of their day, freeing Romans to continue the expansion of the Empire. In the Roman empire, there were about sixty million slaves, about one person in five. In the city of Rome, the ratio was about one in three. Caesar's household contained about 20,000 slaves. The average land-owning family (like Philemon) owned around eight slaves.

The institution of slavery underwent dramatic changes from the foundation of the Roman Empire in the third century BC, to the time of Christianity. As legislation was introduced which gave rights to slaves, their conditions improved as masters came under certain obligations enforced by the state. Under a good master, slaves could enjoy a reasonably good life, but under a bad master, life would be a nightmare. They possessed no legal personality. However the position of slaves was not as severe as it has been at other periods of history.

Status of slaves

Cruelty was condemned by the growing sentiment of common humanity, and in some cases legally controlled. Roman laws were passed to protect slaves and to allow rights, even of private possessions, which were sometimes used to ransom the slave and his family.

By the first century AD, a slave had most of the legal rights which were granted to a free man. Many had a considerable amount of money at their disposal and had rights to a wife and family. In AD 20, a decree of the Senate specified that slave criminals were to be tried in the same way as a free man. In AD 61 the family of a slave owner attempted to use the old prerogative: the execution of all of the slaves of the master, who had been killed by one of them. When the family of Pedanius Secundus ordered this, so great a riot broke out when the report reached Rome that troops had to be called in to stop it, and the slaves were not killed.

The living conditions of many slaves were better than those of free men who often slept in the streets of the city or lived in very cheap rooms. There is considerable evidence to suggest that slaves lived within the confines of their master's house.

The slave was not inferior to the free man of similar skills in regard to food and clothing. The free labourer in NT times was seldom in better circumstances than his slave counterpart. The average free labourer in Rome and in the provinces could expect to earn about one denarius a day, or over three hundred denarii a year, if he worked six days a week. Nearly all of these would be spent on basic necessities. However, the slave, in addition to being provided with these basic necessities, was given five denarii a month as spending money. From this, one can only conclude that the average free man lived no better than a slave. In fact, in time of economic hardship a free man was not guaranteed the necessities of life for himself and his family. A master was required to look after those who were sick or those beyond usefulness as in retirement. A slave was considered an asset for his owner, to be looked after and cared for. Some masters treated slaves' wills as valid.

Although the conditions for slaves had improved greatly by the first century, a slave was still regarded as property and required to do his master's will to the fullest extent of his abilities and wholly serve his master's interests. Disobedient slaves were at the disposal of their master , literally. The penalty for rebellion or running away was crucifixion until the time of the Christian emperors in the fourth century. If not, runaway slaves were branded in the forehead with the letter 'F' (for fugitivus, meaning runaway). If a person aided a runaway slave, he was liable to pay the owner for each day's work that had been lost. Slaves were under the absolute power of their masters, who could use, abuse, or execute them at will. Pliny tells that after a slave broke a crystal goblet, his master had him immediately thrown into a fish pond, where the slave was eaten alive by lampreys (an eel-like carnivorous fish).

Entering slavery

There were two main ways of becoming a slave, either by being born a slave, or being sold into slavery. Under Roman law, a child acquired its mother's status at the time of birth, so if a child was born to a slave mother, then that child inherited slavery. A person could be sold into slavery a number of different ways. The most frequent was being captured and sold as a prisoner of war, for example, when the Emperor Titus sole 90,000 Jews into bondage after his Palestinian campaign. People were also seized illegally by pirates and sold to slave traders; others were bred and sold by slave traders. Sometimes as many ten thousand slaves were imported and sold in one day at a slave market. Slavery was also a way out of debt, it was possible to sell yourself into slavery. Unwanted children were frequently abandoned, and were then available to be taken as a slave by anyone who cared to rear them. It was even possible to sell your own children into slavery.

Length of slavery

Information regarding the length of time a slave had to wait for his freedom is scarce. It is cited, however, that a worthy slave could expect his freedom in about seven years. it would seem that many slave served their masters for a much longer time than this, although at some point a slave was often given the choice between his manumission (freedom) or continuation as a slave.

Runaway slaves

If a slave ran away, his master was entitled to pursue him wherever he was able or pleased to pursue. It was the duty of the civil authorities to aid in the recovery of slaves when possible. Some citizens made it their business to capture and return runaway slaves for a profit.

It was a serious criminal offense to harbour runaway slaves, as it was the equivalent of being a receiver of stolen property. Severe penalties were exacted from those who harboured deserting slaves, and Roman law required that whoever gave hospitality to a runaway slave was liable to the slave's master for the value of each days work lost.

Termination of slavery

The only ways to escape slavery was death, or bring freed as an act of manumission. This could be arranged at any time that the owner wished. In later times legal limits had to be placed on the release of slaves to prevent too rapid an integration of foreigners into Rome. In Greek states emancipated slaves became resident aliens of their former master's city, but at Rome they automatically received citizenship. As a result, there was a great flow of slaves to Italy, especially in the last two centuries BC. This could, perhaps, account for the reason Onesimus went to Rome. he was probably aware that there were many freed slaves in the city and perhaps he considered that they would offer him assistance.

Slavery had become a well-travelled road to Roman citizenship throughout the empire by the first century AD. Captives were educated and trained in Roman ways before becoming citizens. A master could free his slave for citizenship to fulfil obligations to the state, like military service. A slave could also buy his freedom by saving his weekly allowance and doing extra labour. Freedom could also be granted gratuitously by his master. Perhaps the master had a good week of business, and decide to free his slave. Another way was by a law passed in 2 BC which stipulated that a master could arrange for a portion of his slaves to be freed upon his death. Between 81 - 48 BC, 500,000 slaves were freed (population of Rome = 800,000).

Through the ceremony of manumission, if properly performed, a slave was given both freedom and citizenship. He became a 'freedman', his former owner became a 'patron', and a legal relationship continued between them. A relationship of this kind could only be terminated in exceptional circumstances by the civil authorities intervening for a good reason. Neither patron or freedman could destroy that legal relationship. This automatic continuing link was peculiar to Roman law. When applying this to the church, Paul wrote this, "Were you a slave when called? Do not be concerned about it. Even if you can gain your freedom, make use of your present condition now more than ever. For whoever was called in the Lord as a slave is a freed person belonging to the Lord, just as whoever was free when called is a slave of Christ." (1 Cor 7:21-22). Slaves often changed their names to Roman names after coming free.

Status of freedmen

Manumission was normally final. The patron retained many rights and privileges to which the freedman was bound. Normally this consisted of a certain number of days of work per week, month, or year for his patron. A patron could not just dump his slave at the end of his usefulness by granting him his freedom, but was obliged to continue to care for his freedman if the need arose. As patron could never be a witness against his freedman in criminal matters. These obligations on both sides could be annulled in certain exceptional circumstances. It became the common practice of Romans to free their slaves and then to establish them in a trade or profession. Many times the former slave became wealthier than his patron.

Slavery in church history

Slaves could not be baptised without the master's testimony if the master was a Christian. Nor could the slave be ordained unless his master was a Christian and allowed his slave freedom to serve. Similarly, the slave could not marry or enter a monastery unless the master permitted. Easter was an occasion when slaves were frequently freed in celebration of the resurrection of Christ.

New Testament view of slavery

The early church did not directly attack slavery as an institution. However, it did reorder the relationship between slaves and masters, as in the case of Philemon. Paul called on Philemon to welcome his runaway slave with the new status as a fellow believer, even to welcome him as you would welcome me (Phm 18). In his letter, Paul is certainly asking Philemon to forgive Onesimus, but also most likely that he was also requesting that Philemon set Onesimus free from slavery.

The NT indicates that in God's sight there is neither "slave nor free" (Gal 3:28). Paul teaches that slaves are to obey their masters (Eph 6:5, Col 3:22-24). Peter also teaches that slaves are to be submissive to their masters, even to masters who mistreat them (1 Pet 2:18-20). Paul also teaches that masters are to grant their slaves fairness and justice, for they too have a Master in heaven (Col 4:1). Both slaves and masters are accountable to God (Eph 6, Col 3:22, 4:1). Christ seemed to be more concerned about slavery to sin than slavery in the sense of human bondage. He said, "Everyone who commits sin is the slave of sin" (John 8:34). He went on to explain that true freedom could be found only in himself, "And you shall know the truth, and the truth shall make you free ... If therefore the Son shall make you free, you shall be free indeed" (John 8:32,36). The NT does not explicitly oppose the institution of slavery, but rather opposes its abuses by either slave or master.

The Bible

Pages which look at issues relevant to the whole Bible, such as the Canon of Scripture, as well as doctrinal and theological issues. There are also pages about the Apocrypha, Pseudepigrapha and 'lost books' of the Old Testament.

Also included are lists of the quotations of the OT in the NT, and passages of the OT quoted in the NT.

Why These 66 Books?
Books in the Hebrew Scriptures
Quotations in NT From OT
OT Passages Quoted in NT
History of the English Bible
Twelve Books of the Apocrypha
The Pseudepigrapha - False Writings
Lost Books Referenced in OT

Old Testament Overview

This is a series of six pages which give a historical overview through the Old Testament and the inter-testamental period, showing where each OT book fits into the history of Israel.

OT 1: Creation and Patriarchs
OT 2: Exodus and Wilderness
OT 3: Conquest and Monarchy
OT 4: Divided kingdom and Exile
OT 5: Return from Exile
OT 6: 400 Silent Years

New Testament Overview

This is a series of five pages which give a historical overview through the New Testament, focusing on the Ministry of Jesus, Paul's missionary journeys, and the later first century. Again, it shows where each book of the NT fits into the history of the first century.

NT 1: Life and Ministry of Jesus
NT 2: Birth of the Church
NT 3: Paul's Missionary Journeys
NT 4: Paul's Imprisonment
NT 5: John and Later NT

Introductions to Old Testament Books

This is an almost complete collection of introductions to each of the books in the Old Testament. Each contains information about the authorship, date, historical setting and main themes of the book.

Genesis Exodus Leviticus
Numbers Deuteronomy

Joshua Judges Ruth
1 & 2 Samuel 1 & 2 Kings Chronicles
Ezra & Nehemiah Esther

Job Psalms Proverbs

Isaiah Jeremiah Lamentations
Ezekiel Daniel

Hosea Joel Amos
Obadiah Jonah Micah
Nahum Habakkuk Zephaniah
Haggai Zechariah Malachi

Introductions to New Testament Books

This is a collection of introductions to each of the 27 books in the New Testament. Each contains information about the authorship, date, historical setting and main themes of the book.

Matthew's Gospel Mark's Gospel Luke's Gospel
John's Gospel

Book of Acts

Romans 1 Corinthians 2 Corinthians
Galatians Ephesians Philippians
Colossians 1 & 2 Thessalonians 1 Timothy
2 Timothy Titus Philemon

Hebrews James 1 Peter
2 Peter 1 John 2 & 3 John


Old Testament History

Information about the different nations surrounding Israel, and other articles concerning Old Testament history and the inter-testamental period.

Canaanite Religion
Israel's Enemies During the Conquest
Syria / Aram
The Assyrian Empire
Babylon and its History
The Persian Empire
The Greek Empire
The 400 Silent Years
The Ptolemies and Seleucids
Antiochus IV - Epiphanes

Old Testament Studies

A series of articles covering more general topics for OT studies. These include a list of the people named in the OT and confirmed by archaeology. There are also pages to convert the different units of measure in the OT, such as the talent, cubit and ephah into modern units.

More theological topics include warfare in the ancient world, the Holy Spirit in the OT, and types of Jesus in the OT.

OT People Confirmed by Archaeology
The Jewish Calendar
The Importance of Paradox
Talent Converter (weights)
Cubit Converter (lengths)
OT People Search
Ephah Converter (volumes)
Holy War in the Ancient World
The Holy Spirit in the OT
Types of Jesus in the OT

Studies in the Pentateuch (Gen - Deut)

A series of articles covering studies in the five books of Moses. Studies in the Book of Genesis look at the historical nature of the early chapters of Genesis, the Tower of Babel and the Table of the Nations.

There are also pages about covenants, the sacrifices and offerings, the Jewish festivals and the tabernacle, as well as the issue of tithing.

Are chapters 1-11 of Genesis historical?
Chronology of the Flood
Genealogies of the Patriarchs
Table of the Nations (Gen 10)
Tower of Babel (Gen 11:1-9)

Authorship of the Pentateuch
Chronology of the Wilderness Years
Names of God in the OT
Covenants in the OT
The Ten Commandments
The Tabernacle and its Theology
Sacrifices and Offerings
The Jewish Festivals
Balaam and Balak
Highlights from Deuteronomy
Overview of Deuteronomy

Studies in the Old Testament History Books (Josh - Esther)

Articles containing studies and helpful information for the history books. These include a list of the dates of the kings of Israel and Judah, a summary of the kings of the Northern Kingdom of Israel, and studies of Solomon, Jeroboam and Josiah.

There are also pages describing some of the historical events of the period, including the Syro-Ephraimite War, and the Assyrian invasion of Judah in 701 BC.

Dates of the Kings of Judah and Israel
King Solomon
The Kings of Israel
King Jeroboam I of Israel
The Syro-Ephraimite War (735 BC)
Sennacherib's Invasion of Judah (701 BC)
King Josiah of Judah
Differences Between Kings and Chronicles
Chronology of the post-exilic period

Studies in the Old Testament Prophets (Is - Mal)

Articles containing studies and helpful information for the OT prophets. These include a page looking at the way the prophets look ahead into their future, a page looking at the question of whether Satan is a fallen angel, and a page studying the seventy weeks of Daniel.

There are also a series of pages giving a commentary through the text of two of the books:
Isaiah (13 pages) and Daniel (10 pages).

Prophets and the Future
The Call of Jeremiah (Jer 1)
The Fall of Satan? (Is 14, Ezek 28)
Daniel Commentary (10 pages)
Isaiah Commentary (13 pages)
Formation of the Book of Jeremiah

Daniel's Seventy Weeks (Dan 9:24-27)

New Testament Studies

A series of articles covering more general topics for NT studies. These include a list of the people in the NT confirmed by archaeology.

More theological topics include the Kingdom of God and the Coming of Christ.

NT People Confirmed by Archaeology
The Kingdom of God / Heaven
Parousia (Coming of Christ)
The Importance of Paradox

Studies in the Four Gospels (Matt - John)

A series of articles covering various studies in the four gospels. These include a list of the unique passages in each of the Synoptic Gospels and helpful information about the parables and how to interpret them.

Some articles look at the life and ministry of Jesus, including his genealogy, birth narratives, transfiguration, the triumphal entry into Jerusalem, and the seating arrangements at the Last Supper.

More theological topics include the teaching about the Holy Spirit as the Paraclete and whether John the Baptist fulfilled the predictions of the coming of Elijah.

Unique Passages in the Synoptic Gospels
The SynopticProblem
Genealogy of Jesus (Matt 1)
Birth Narratives of Jesus
Understanding the Parables
Peter's Confession and the Transfiguration
Was John the Baptist Elijah?
The Triumphal Entry
The Olivet Discourse (Mark 13)
Important themes in John's Gospel
John's Gospel Prologue (John 1)
Jesus Fulfilling Jewish Festivals
Reclining at Table at the Last Supper
The Holy Spirit as the Paraclete

Studies in the Book of Acts and the New Testament Letters

A series of articles covering various studies in the Book of Acts and the Letters, including Paul's letters. These include a page studying the messages given by the apostles in the Book of Acts, and the information about the financial collection that Paul made during his third missionary journey. More theological topics include Paul's teaching on Jesus as the last Adam, and descriptions of the church such as the body of Christ and the temple, as well as a look at redemption and the issue of fallen angels.

There are a series of pages giving a commentary through the text of five of the books:
Romans (7 pages), 1 Corinthians (7 pages), Galatians (3 pages), Philemon (1 page) and Hebrews (7 pages)

Apostolic Messages in the Book of Acts
Paul and His Apostleship
Collection for the Saints
The Church Described as a Temple
Church as the Body of Christ
Jesus as the Last Adam
Food Offered to Idols
Paul's Teaching on Headcoverings
Who are the Fallen Angels
The Meaning of Redemption
What is the Church?
Paul and the Greek Games

Romans Commentary (7 pages)

1 Corinthians Commentary (7 pages)

Galatians Commentary (3 pages)

Philemon Commentary (1 page)

Hebrews Commentary (7 pages)

Studies in the Book of Revelation

Articles containing studies and helpful information for the study of the Book of Revelation and topics concerning Eschatology (the study of end-times).

These include a description of the structure of the book, a comparison and contrast between the good and evil characters in the book and a list of the many allusions to the OT. For the seven churches, there is a page which gives links to their location on Google maps.

There is a page studying the important theme of Jesus as the Lamb, which forms the central theological truth of the book. There are pages looking at the major views of the Millennium, as well as the rapture and tribulation, as well as a list of dates of the second coming that have been mistakenly predicted through history.

There is also a series of ten pages giving a detailed commentry through the text of the Book of Revelation.

Introduction to the Book of Revelation
Characters Introduced in the Book
Structure of Revelation
List of Allusions to OT
The Description of Jesus as the Lamb
Virtual Seven Churches of Revelation
The Nero Redivius Myth
The Millennium (1000 years)
The Rapture and the Tribulation
Different Approaches to Revelation
Predicted Dates of the Second Coming

Revelation Commentary (10 pages)

How to do Inductive Bible Study

These are a series of pages giving practical help showing how to study the Bible inductively, by asking a series of simple questions. There are lists of observation and interpretation questions, as well as information about the structure and historical background of biblical books, as well as a list of the different types of figures of speech used in the Bible. There is also a page giving helpful tips on how to apply the Scriptures personally.

How to Study the Bible Inductively
I. The Inductive Study Method
II. Observation Questions
III. Interpretation Questions
IV. Structure of Books
V. Determining the Historical background
VI. Identifying Figures of Speech
VII. Personal Application
VIII. Text Layout

Types of Literature in the Bible

These are a series of pages giving practical help showing how to study each of the different types of book in the Bible by appreciating the type of literature being used. These include historical narrative, law, wisdom, prophets, Gospels, Acts, letters and Revelation.

It is most important that when reading the Bible we are taking note of the type of literature we are reading. Each type needs to be considered and interpreted differently as they have different purposes.

How to Understand OT Narratives
How to Understand OT Law
Hebrew Poetry
OT Wisdom Literature
Understanding the OT Prophets
The Four Gospels
The Parables of Jesus
The Book of Acts
How to Understand the NT Letters
Studying End Times (Eschatology)
The Book of Revelation

Geography and Archaeology

These are a series of pages giving geographical and archaeological information relevant to the study of the Bible. There is a page where you can search for a particular geographical location and locate it on Google maps, as well as viewing photographs on other sites.

There are also pages with photographs from Ephesus and Corinth.

Search for Geographical Locations
Major Archaeological Sites in Israel
Archaeological Sites in Assyria, Babylon and Persia
Virtual Paul's Missionary Journeys
Virtual Seven Churches of Revelation
Photos of the City of Corinth
Photos of the City of Ephesus

Biblical Archaeology in Museums around the world

A page with a facility to search for artifacts held in museums around the world which have a connection with the Bible. These give information about each artifact, as well as links to the museum's collection website where available showing high resolution photographs of the artifact.

There is also page of photographs from the Israel Museum in Jerusalem of important artifacts.

Search Museums for Biblical Archaeology
Israel Museum Photos

Difficult Theological and Ethical Questions

These are a series of pages looking at some of the more difficult questions of Christian theology, including war, suffering, disappointment and what happens to those who have never heard the Gospel.

Christian Ethics
Never Heard the Gospel
Is there Ever a Just War?
Why Does God Allow Suffering
Handling Disappointment

How to Preach

These are a series of pages giving a practical step-by-step explanation of the process of preparing a message for preaching, and how to lead a small group Bible study.

What is Preaching?
I. Two Approaches to Preaching
II. Study a Passage for Preaching
III. Creating a Message Outline
IV. Making Preaching Relevant
V. Presentation and Public Speaking
VI. Preaching Feedback and Critique
Leading a Small Group Bible Study

Information for SBS staff members

Two pages particularly relevant for people serving as staff on the School of Biblical Studies (SBS) in YWAM. One gives helpful instruction about how to prepare to teach on a book in the SBS. The other gives a list of recommended topics which can be taught about for each book of the Bible.

Teaching on SBS Book Topics for SBS